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Processes 2016, 4(4), 55;

Modifier Adaptation for Real-Time Optimization—Methods and Applications

Laboratoire d’Automatique, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
Institute for Materials and Processes, School of Engineering, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3BE, UK
Institute for Applied Computer Science, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
French-Argentine International Center for Information and Systems Sciences (CIFASIS), CONICET-Universidad Nacional de Rosario (UNR), S2000EZP Rosario, Argentina
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michael Henson
Received: 22 November 2016 / Revised: 9 December 2016 / Accepted: 12 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Real-Time Optimization)
PDF [761 KB, uploaded 22 December 2016]


This paper presents an overview of the recent developments of modifier-adaptation schemes for real-time optimization of uncertain processes. These schemes have the ability to reach plant optimality upon convergence despite the presence of structural plant-model mismatch. Modifier Adaptation has its origins in the technique of Integrated System Optimization and Parameter Estimation, but differs in the definition of the modifiers and in the fact that no parameter estimation is required. This paper reviews the fundamentals of Modifier Adaptation and provides an overview of several variants and extensions. Furthermore, the paper discusses different methods for estimating the required gradients (or modifiers) from noisy measurements. We also give an overview of the application studies available in the literature. Finally, the paper briefly discusses open issues so as to promote future research in this area. View Full-Text
Keywords: real-time optimization; modifier adaptation; plant-model mismatch real-time optimization; modifier adaptation; plant-model mismatch

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Marchetti, A.G.; François, G.; Faulwasser, T.; Bonvin, D. Modifier Adaptation for Real-Time Optimization—Methods and Applications. Processes 2016, 4, 55.

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