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Article

High-Fat Diet Induces Pre-Diabetes and Distinct Sex-Specific Metabolic Alterations in Negr1-Deficient Mice

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Institute of Biomedicine and Translational Medicine, Department of Physiology, University of Tartu, 19 Ravila Street, 50411 Tartu, Estonia
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Center of Excellence in Genomics and Translational Medicine, University of Tartu, 50411 Tartu, Estonia
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Institute of Biomedicine and Translational Medicine, Department of Biochemistry, University of Tartu, 19 Ravila Street, 50411 Tartu, Estonia
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Institute of Biomedicine and Translational Medicine, Laboratory Animal Center, University of Tartu, 14B Ravila Street, 50411 Tartu, Estonia
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Institute of Molecular Psychiatry, Medical Faculty, University of Bonn, 53129 Bonn, Germany
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Department of Anesthesiology, Focus Program Translational Neurosciences, Research Center for Immunotherapy, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, 55131 Mainz, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Susan J. Burke
Biomedicines 2021, 9(9), 1148; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9091148
Received: 29 July 2021 / Revised: 27 August 2021 / Accepted: 28 August 2021 / Published: 3 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Paradigms in Insulin Resistance)
In the large GWAS studies, NEGR1 gene has been one of the most significant gene loci for body mass phenotype. The purpose of the current study was to clarify the role of NEGR1 in the maintenance of systemic metabolism, including glucose homeostasis, by using both male and female Negr1−/− mice receiving a standard or high fat diet (HFD). We found that 6 weeks of HFD leads to higher levels of blood glucose in Negr1−/− mice. In the glucose tolerance test, HFD induced phenotype difference only in male mice; Negr1−/− male mice displayed altered glucose tolerance, accompanied with upregulation of circulatory branched-chain amino acids (BCAA). The general metabolomic profile indicates that Negr1−/− mice are biased towards glyconeogenesis, fatty acid synthesis, and higher protein catabolism, all of which are amplified by HFD. Negr1 deficiency appears to induce alterations in the efficiency of energy storage; reduced food intake could be an attempt to compensate for the metabolic challenge present in the Negr1−/− males, particularly during the HFD exposure. Our results suggest that the presence of functional Negr1 allows male mice to consume more HFD and prevents the development of glucose intolerance, liver steatosis, and excessive weight gain. View Full-Text
Keywords: Negr1; obesity; metabolic disease; metabolomics; glucose intolerance; genetic models Negr1; obesity; metabolic disease; metabolomics; glucose intolerance; genetic models
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kaare, M.; Mikheim, K.; Lilleväli, K.; Kilk, K.; Jagomäe, T.; Leidmaa, E.; Piirsalu, M.; Porosk, R.; Singh, K.; Reimets, R.; Taalberg, E.; Schäfer, M.K.E.; Plaas, M.; Vasar, E.; Philips, M.-A. High-Fat Diet Induces Pre-Diabetes and Distinct Sex-Specific Metabolic Alterations in Negr1-Deficient Mice. Biomedicines 2021, 9, 1148. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9091148

AMA Style

Kaare M, Mikheim K, Lilleväli K, Kilk K, Jagomäe T, Leidmaa E, Piirsalu M, Porosk R, Singh K, Reimets R, Taalberg E, Schäfer MKE, Plaas M, Vasar E, Philips M-A. High-Fat Diet Induces Pre-Diabetes and Distinct Sex-Specific Metabolic Alterations in Negr1-Deficient Mice. Biomedicines. 2021; 9(9):1148. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9091148

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kaare, Maria, Kaie Mikheim, Kersti Lilleväli, Kalle Kilk, Toomas Jagomäe, Este Leidmaa, Maria Piirsalu, Rando Porosk, Katyayani Singh, Riin Reimets, Egon Taalberg, Michael K.E. Schäfer, Mario Plaas, Eero Vasar, and Mari-Anne Philips. 2021. "High-Fat Diet Induces Pre-Diabetes and Distinct Sex-Specific Metabolic Alterations in Negr1-Deficient Mice" Biomedicines 9, no. 9: 1148. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9091148

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