Next Article in Journal
Lactoferrin for Prevention and Treatment of Anemia and Inflammation in Pregnant Women: A Comprehensive Review
Next Article in Special Issue
Chronic Lithium Treatment Affects Anxious Behaviors and theExpression of Serotonergic Genes in Midbrain Raphe Nuclei of Defeated Male Mice
Previous Article in Journal
TGF-β Increases MFGE8 Production in Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells to Promote B16F10 Melanoma Metastasis
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Oscillatory Profile Induced by the Anxiogenic Drug FG-7142 in the Amygdala–Hippocampal Network Is Reversed by Infralimbic Deep Brain Stimulation: Relevance for Mood Disorders
Review

Co-Players in Chronic Pain: Neuroinflammation and the Tryptophan-Kynurenine Metabolic Pathway

1
MTA-SZTE, Neuroscience Research Group, Semmelweis u. 6, H-6725 Szeged, Hungary
2
Interdisciplinary Excellence Centre, Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Szeged, H-6725 Szeged, Hungary
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Rosanna Di Paola
Biomedicines 2021, 9(8), 897; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9080897
Received: 3 June 2021 / Revised: 18 July 2021 / Accepted: 19 July 2021 / Published: 26 July 2021
Chronic pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience that persists or recurs more than three months and may extend beyond the expected time of healing. Recently, nociplastic pain has been introduced as a descriptor of the mechanism of pain, which is due to the disturbance of neural processing without actual or potential tissue damage, appearing to replace a concept of psychogenic pain. An interdisciplinary task force of the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) compiled a systematic classification of clinical conditions associated with chronic pain, which was published in 2018 and will officially come into effect in 2022 in the 11th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11) by the World Health Organization. ICD-11 offers the option for recording the presence of psychological or social factors in chronic pain; however, cognitive, emotional, and social dimensions in the pathogenesis of chronic pain are missing. Earlier pain disorder was defined as a condition with chronic pain associated with psychological factors, but it was replaced with somatic symptom disorder with predominant pain in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) in 2013. Recently clinical nosology is trending toward highlighting neurological pathology of chronic pain, discounting psychological or social factors in the pathogenesis of pain. This review article discusses components of the pain pathway, the component-based mechanisms of pain, central and peripheral sensitization, roles of chronic inflammation, and the involvement of tryptophan-kynurenine pathway metabolites, exploring the participation of psychosocial and behavioral factors in central sensitization of diseases progressing into the development of chronic pain, comorbid diseases that commonly present a symptom of chronic pain, and psychiatric disorders that manifest chronic pain without obvious actual or potential tissue damage. View Full-Text
Keywords: chronic pain; nociceptive pain; neuropathic pain; nociplastic pain; psychogenic pain; neuroinflammation; kynurenine chronic pain; nociceptive pain; neuropathic pain; nociplastic pain; psychogenic pain; neuroinflammation; kynurenine
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Tanaka, M.; Török, N.; Tóth, F.; Szabó, Á.; Vécsei, L. Co-Players in Chronic Pain: Neuroinflammation and the Tryptophan-Kynurenine Metabolic Pathway. Biomedicines 2021, 9, 897. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9080897

AMA Style

Tanaka M, Török N, Tóth F, Szabó Á, Vécsei L. Co-Players in Chronic Pain: Neuroinflammation and the Tryptophan-Kynurenine Metabolic Pathway. Biomedicines. 2021; 9(8):897. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9080897

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tanaka, Masaru, Nóra Török, Fanni Tóth, Ágnes Szabó, and László Vécsei. 2021. "Co-Players in Chronic Pain: Neuroinflammation and the Tryptophan-Kynurenine Metabolic Pathway" Biomedicines 9, no. 8: 897. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9080897

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop