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Article

In Vivo and In Vitro Characterization of Primary Human Liver Macrophages and Their Inflammatory State

1
Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery and Visceral Transplantation, University Hospital, Leipzig University, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
2
Saxonian Incubator for Clinical Translation (SIKT), Leipzig University, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
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Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Epidemiology (IMISE), Leipzig University, 04107 Leipzig, Germany
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Institute for Pathology, University Hospital, Leipzig University, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
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Rudolf-Schönheimer-Institute of Biochemistry, Leipzig University, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
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Department for Hepatology, University Hospital, Leipzig University, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Andrea Zimmermann and René Hänsel have contributed equally to the study and the generation of the manuscript.
Academic Editor: Alexei Gratchev
Biomedicines 2021, 9(4), 406; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9040406
Received: 4 March 2021 / Revised: 30 March 2021 / Accepted: 2 April 2021 / Published: 9 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Immunology and Immunotherapy)
Liver macrophages (LMs) play a central role in acute and chronic liver pathologies. Investigation of these processes in humans as well as the development of diagnostic tools and new therapeutic strategies require in vitro models that closely resemble the in vivo situation. In our study, we sought to gain further insight into the role of LMs in different liver pathologies and into their characteristics after isolation from liver tissue. For this purpose, LMs were characterized in human liver tissue sections using immunohistochemistry and bioinformatic image analysis. Isolated cells were characterized in suspension using FACS analyses and in culture using immunofluorescence staining and laser scanning microscopy as well as functional assays. The majority of our investigated liver tissues were characterized by anti-inflammatory LMs which showed a homogeneous distribution and increased cell numbers in correlation with chronic liver injuries. In contrast, pro-inflammatory LMs appeared as temporary and locally restricted reactions. Detailed characterization of isolated macrophages revealed a complex disease dependent pattern of LMs consisting of pro- and anti-inflammatory macrophages of different origins, regulatory macrophages and monocytes. Our study showed that in most cases the macrophage pattern can be transferred in adherent cultures. The observed exceptions were restricted to LMs with pro-inflammatory characteristics. View Full-Text
Keywords: human liver; liver cell isolation; primary human liver cells; hepatic macrophages; Kupffer cells; monocyte-derived macrophages; macrophage heterogeneity; inflammatory liver diseases; in vitro liver model human liver; liver cell isolation; primary human liver cells; hepatic macrophages; Kupffer cells; monocyte-derived macrophages; macrophage heterogeneity; inflammatory liver diseases; in vitro liver model
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zimmermann, A.; Hänsel, R.; Gemünden, K.; Kegel-Hübner, V.; Babel, J.; Bläker, H.; Matz-Soja, M.; Seehofer, D.; Damm, G. In Vivo and In Vitro Characterization of Primary Human Liver Macrophages and Their Inflammatory State. Biomedicines 2021, 9, 406. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9040406

AMA Style

Zimmermann A, Hänsel R, Gemünden K, Kegel-Hübner V, Babel J, Bläker H, Matz-Soja M, Seehofer D, Damm G. In Vivo and In Vitro Characterization of Primary Human Liver Macrophages and Their Inflammatory State. Biomedicines. 2021; 9(4):406. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9040406

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zimmermann, Andrea, René Hänsel, Kilian Gemünden, Victoria Kegel-Hübner, Jonas Babel, Hendrik Bläker, Madlen Matz-Soja, Daniel Seehofer, and Georg Damm. 2021. "In Vivo and In Vitro Characterization of Primary Human Liver Macrophages and Their Inflammatory State" Biomedicines 9, no. 4: 406. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9040406

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