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Dopamine in Health and Disease: Much More Than a Neurotransmitter

by 1,2,*, 1,*,† and 1,3
1
Neurodegenerative Diseases, CiberNed. Network Research Center, Spanish National Health Institute Carlos III, Valderrebollo 5, 28031 Madrid, Spain
2
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biomedicine, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
3
Department of Biochemistry and Physiology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Food Science, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: RG Neuroplasticity, Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology 39118, Germany.
Biomedicines 2021, 9(2), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9020109
Received: 3 January 2021 / Revised: 16 January 2021 / Accepted: 18 January 2021 / Published: 22 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dopamine in Health and Disease)
Dopamine is derived from an amino acid, phenylalanine, which must be obtained through the diet. Dopamine, known primarily to be a neurotransmitter involved in almost any higher executive action, acts through five types of G-protein-coupled receptors. Dopamine has been studied extensively for its neuronal handling, synaptic actions, and in relation to Parkinson’s disease. However, dopamine receptors can be found extra-synaptically and, in addition, they are not only expressed in neurons, but in many types of mammalian cells, inside and outside the central nervous system (CNS). Recent studies show a dopamine link between the gut and the CNS; the mechanisms are unknown, but they probably require cells to act as mediators and the involvement of the immune system. In fact, dopamine receptors are expressed in almost any cell of the immune system where dopamine regulates various processes, such as antigen presentation, T-cell activation, and inflammation. This likely immune cell-mediated linkage opens up a new perspective for the use of dopamine-related drugs, i.e., agonist–antagonist–allosteric modulators of dopamine receptors, in a variety of diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: microbiota; intestinal flora; Parkinson’s disease; immune system; drug development; receptor heteromers; G protein-coupled receptors; L-DOPA; inflammation; T-cell activation microbiota; intestinal flora; Parkinson’s disease; immune system; drug development; receptor heteromers; G protein-coupled receptors; L-DOPA; inflammation; T-cell activation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Franco, R.; Reyes-Resina, I.; Navarro, G. Dopamine in Health and Disease: Much More Than a Neurotransmitter. Biomedicines 2021, 9, 109. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9020109

AMA Style

Franco R, Reyes-Resina I, Navarro G. Dopamine in Health and Disease: Much More Than a Neurotransmitter. Biomedicines. 2021; 9(2):109. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9020109

Chicago/Turabian Style

Franco, Rafael; Reyes-Resina, Irene; Navarro, Gemma. 2021. "Dopamine in Health and Disease: Much More Than a Neurotransmitter" Biomedicines 9, no. 2: 109. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9020109

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