Next Article in Journal
Special Issue: Hypoxia-Inducible Factors: Regulation and Therapeutic Potential
Previous Article in Journal
The Effectiveness of Compartmentalized Bone Graft Sponges Made Using Complementary Bone Graft Materials and Succinylated Chitosan Hydrogels
Article

Preparation and Characterization of Silymarin-Conjugated Gold Nanoparticles with Enhanced Anti-Fibrotic Therapeutic Effects against Hepatic Fibrosis in Rats: Role of MicroRNAs as Molecular Targets

1
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Shebin El Koom 13829, Egypt
2
Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Albaha University, Alaqiq 65779, Saudi Arabia
3
Research Center for Advanced Materials Science (RCAMS), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, Abha 61413, Saudi Arabia
4
Research Center for Advanced Materials Science (RCAMS), King Khalid University, Abha 61413, Saudi Arabia
5
Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
6
Physics and Engineering Mathematics Department, Faculty of Electronic Engineering, Menoufia University, Menoufia 32952, Egypt
7
Department of Biochemistry, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, Alexandria 21516, Egypt
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Robert Schierwagen
Biomedicines 2021, 9(12), 1767; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9121767 (registering DOI)
Received: 14 October 2021 / Revised: 10 November 2021 / Accepted: 15 November 2021 / Published: 25 November 2021
Background: The main obstacles of silymarin (SIL) application in liver diseases are its low bioavailability, elevated metabolism, rapid excretion in bile and urine, and inefficient intestinal resorption. The study aimed to synthesize and characterize silymarin-conjugated gold nanoparticles (SGNPs) formulation to improve SIL bioavailability and release for potentiating its antifibrotic action. Methods: Both SGNPs and gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared and characterized using standard characterization techniques. The improved formulation was assessed for in vitro drug release study and in vivo study on rats using CCl4 induced hepatic fibrosis model. SIL, SGNPs, and GNPs were administered by oral gavage daily for 30 days. At the end of the study, rats underwent anesthesia and were sacrificed, serum samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Liver tissues were collected to measure the genes and microRNAs (miRNAs) expressions. Also, histopathological and immunohistochemistry (IHC) examinations of hepatic tissues supported these results. Results: The successful formation and conjugation of SGNPs were confirmed by measurements methods. The synthesized nanohybrid SGNPs showed significant antifibrotic therapeutic action against CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats, and preserved normal body weight, liver weight, liver index values, retained normal hepatic functions, lowered inflammatory markers, declined lipid peroxidation, and activated the antioxidant pathway nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (NRF2). The antifibrotic activities of SGNPs mediated through enhancing the hepatic expression of the protective miRNAs; miR-22, miR-29c, and miR-219a which results in suppressed expression of the main fibrosis mediators; TGFβR1, COL3A1, and TGFβR2, respectively. The histopathology and IHC analysis confirmed the anti-fibrotic effects of SGNPs. Conclusions: The successful synthesis of SGNPs with sizes ranging from 16 up to 20 nm and entrapment efficiency and loading capacity 96% and 38.69%, respectively. In vivo studies revealed that the obtained nano-formulation of SIL boosted its anti-fibrotic effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: liver fibrosis; silymarin; gold nanoparticles; epigenetics; microRNAs; oxidative stress liver fibrosis; silymarin; gold nanoparticles; epigenetics; microRNAs; oxidative stress
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Abdullah, A.S.; El Sayed, I.E.T.; El-Torgoman, A.M.A.; Alghamdi, N.A.; Ullah, S.; Wageh, S.; Kamel, M.A. Preparation and Characterization of Silymarin-Conjugated Gold Nanoparticles with Enhanced Anti-Fibrotic Therapeutic Effects against Hepatic Fibrosis in Rats: Role of MicroRNAs as Molecular Targets. Biomedicines 2021, 9, 1767. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9121767

AMA Style

Abdullah AS, El Sayed IET, El-Torgoman AMA, Alghamdi NA, Ullah S, Wageh S, Kamel MA. Preparation and Characterization of Silymarin-Conjugated Gold Nanoparticles with Enhanced Anti-Fibrotic Therapeutic Effects against Hepatic Fibrosis in Rats: Role of MicroRNAs as Molecular Targets. Biomedicines. 2021; 9(12):1767. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9121767

Chicago/Turabian Style

Abdullah, Abdullah S., Ibrahim E.T. El Sayed, Abdel M.A. El-Torgoman, Noweir A. Alghamdi, Sami Ullah, S. Wageh, and Maher A. Kamel 2021. "Preparation and Characterization of Silymarin-Conjugated Gold Nanoparticles with Enhanced Anti-Fibrotic Therapeutic Effects against Hepatic Fibrosis in Rats: Role of MicroRNAs as Molecular Targets" Biomedicines 9, no. 12: 1767. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9121767

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop