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Review

Tumor-Associated Mast Cells in Urothelial Bladder Cancer: Optimizing Immuno-Oncology

1
Division of Life Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea
2
Department of Urology, Center for Urologic Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang 10408, Korea
3
Division of Tumor Immunology, Department of Cancer Biomedical Science, Research Institute, Graduate School of Cancer Science and Policy, National Cancer Center, Goyang 10408, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jennifer D. Wu
Biomedicines 2021, 9(11), 1500; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9111500
Received: 20 September 2021 / Revised: 14 October 2021 / Accepted: 16 October 2021 / Published: 20 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunotherapy for Combatting Genitourinary Tract Cancers)
Urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) is one of the most prevalent and aggressive malignancies. Recent evidence indicates that the tumor microenvironment (TME), including a variety of immune cells, is a critical modulator of tumor initiation, progression, evolution, and treatment resistance. Mast cells (MCs) in UBC are possibly involved in tumor angiogenesis, tissue remodeling, and immunomodulation. Moreover, tumor-infiltration by MCs has been reported in early-stage UBC patients. This infiltration is linked with a favorable or unfavorable prognosis depending on the tumor type and location. Despite the discrepancy of MC function in tumor progression, MCs can modify the TME to regulate the immunity and infiltration of tumors by producing an array of mediators. Nonetheless, the precise role of MCs in UBC tumor progression and evolution remains unknown. Thus, this review discusses some critical roles of MCs in UBC. Patients with UBC are treated at both early and late stages by immunotherapeutic methods, including intravenous bacillus Calmette–Guérin instillation and immune checkpoint blockade. An understanding of the patient response and resistance mechanisms in UBC is required to unlock the complete potential of immunotherapy. Since MCs are pivotal to understand the underlying processes and predictors of therapeutic responses in UBC, our review also focuses on possible immunotherapeutic treatments that involve MCs. View Full-Text
Keywords: bladder cancer; mast cells; mucosal immune barrier; pro-tumor immunity immunotherapy; tumor microenvironment bladder cancer; mast cells; mucosal immune barrier; pro-tumor immunity immunotherapy; tumor microenvironment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Choi, H.W.; Naskar, M.; Seo, H.K.; Lee, H.W. Tumor-Associated Mast Cells in Urothelial Bladder Cancer: Optimizing Immuno-Oncology. Biomedicines 2021, 9, 1500. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9111500

AMA Style

Choi HW, Naskar M, Seo HK, Lee HW. Tumor-Associated Mast Cells in Urothelial Bladder Cancer: Optimizing Immuno-Oncology. Biomedicines. 2021; 9(11):1500. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9111500

Chicago/Turabian Style

Choi, Hae W., Manisha Naskar, Ho K. Seo, and Hye W. Lee 2021. "Tumor-Associated Mast Cells in Urothelial Bladder Cancer: Optimizing Immuno-Oncology" Biomedicines 9, no. 11: 1500. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9111500

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