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Review

Clinically Translatable Approaches of Inhibiting TGF-β to Target Cancer Stem Cells in TNBC

1
Department of Basic Science, Kansas City University, 1750 Independence Ave, Kansas City, MO 64106, USA
2
Children’s Mercy Hospital, Kansas City, 2401 Gillham Rd, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Academic Editors: Lluis Espinosa and Teresa Lobo-Jarne
Biomedicines 2021, 9(10), 1386; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9101386
Received: 9 September 2021 / Revised: 28 September 2021 / Accepted: 30 September 2021 / Published: 4 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Collection Stem Cells and Cancer Therapeutics)
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subtype of breast cancer that disproportionally accounts for the majority of breast cancer-related deaths due to the lack of specific targets for effective treatments. In this review, we highlight the complexity of the transforming growth factor-beta family (TGF-β) pathway and discuss how the dysregulation of the TGF-β pathway promotes oncogenic attributes in TNBC, which negatively affects patient prognosis. Moreover, we discuss recent findings highlighting TGF-β inhibition as a potent method to target mesenchymal (CD44+/CD24) and epithelial (ALDHhigh) cancer stem cell (CSC) populations. CSCs are associated with tumorigenesis, metastasis, relapse, resistance, and diminished patient prognosis; however, due to differential signal pathway enrichment and plasticity, these populations remain difficult to target and persist as a major barrier barring successful therapy. This review highlights the importance of TGF-β as a driver of chemoresistance, radioresistance and reduced patient prognosis in breast cancer and highlights novel treatment strategies which modulate TGF-β, impede cancer progression and reduce the rate of resistance generation via targeting the CSC populations in TNBC and thus reducing tumorigenicity. Potential TGF-β inhibitors targeting based on clinical trials are summarized for further investigation, which may lead to the development of novel therapies to improve TNBC patient prognosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: triple-negative breast cancer; cancer stem cell; TGF-β triple-negative breast cancer; cancer stem cell; TGF-β
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sulaiman, A.; McGarry, S.; Chilumula, S.C.; Kandunuri, R.; Vinod, V. Clinically Translatable Approaches of Inhibiting TGF-β to Target Cancer Stem Cells in TNBC. Biomedicines 2021, 9, 1386. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9101386

AMA Style

Sulaiman A, McGarry S, Chilumula SC, Kandunuri R, Vinod V. Clinically Translatable Approaches of Inhibiting TGF-β to Target Cancer Stem Cells in TNBC. Biomedicines. 2021; 9(10):1386. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9101386

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sulaiman, Andrew, Sarah McGarry, Sai C. Chilumula, Rohith Kandunuri, and Vishak Vinod. 2021. "Clinically Translatable Approaches of Inhibiting TGF-β to Target Cancer Stem Cells in TNBC" Biomedicines 9, no. 10: 1386. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9101386

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