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Open AccessArticle

β-Caryophyllene Reduces the Inflammatory Phenotype of Periodontal Cells by Targeting CB2 Receptors

1
Department of Biomedical, Dental, Morphological and Functional Imaging Sciences, University of Messina, Via C. Valeria, 98125 Messina, Italy
2
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina, Via C. Valeria, 98125 Messina, Italy
3
SunNutraPharma, Academic Spin-Off Company of the University of Messina, Via C. Valeria, 98125 Messina, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Biomedicines 2020, 8(6), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8060164
Received: 20 May 2020 / Revised: 14 June 2020 / Accepted: 15 June 2020 / Published: 17 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Medicine in Therapy)
Human gingival fibroblasts (GF) and human oral mucosa epithelial cells (EC) with an inflammatory phenotype represent a valuable experimental paradigm to explore the curative activity of agents to be used in oral mucositis. The role of cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) has not yet been investigated in oral mucositis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of β-Caryophyllene (BCP), a CB2 agonist, in an in vitro model of oral mucositis. GF and EC were stimulated with LPS (2 µg/mL) alone or in combination with BCP; a group of LPS challenged GF and EC were treated with BCP and AM630, a CB2 antagonist. LPS increased the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-17A whereas it decreased the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-13. The upstream signals were identified in an augmented expression of NF-κB and STAT-3 and in reduced mRNA levels of PPARγ and PGC-1α. BCP blunted the LPS-induced inflammatory phenotype and this effect was reverted by the CB2 antagonist AM630. These results suggest that CB2 receptors are an interesting target to develop innovative strategies for oral mucositis and point out that BCP exerts a marked curative effect in a preclinical model of oral mucositis which deserves to be confirmed in a clinical setting. View Full-Text
Keywords: β-Caryophyllene; CB2 receptors; inflammation; oral mucositis; periodontitis β-Caryophyllene; CB2 receptors; inflammation; oral mucositis; periodontitis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Picciolo, G.; Pallio, G.; Altavilla, D.; Vaccaro, M.; Oteri, G.; Irrera, N.; Squadrito, F. β-Caryophyllene Reduces the Inflammatory Phenotype of Periodontal Cells by Targeting CB2 Receptors. Biomedicines 2020, 8, 164.

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