Next Article in Journal
Characterization of Synthetic Tf2 as a NaV1.3 Selective Pharmacological Probe
Previous Article in Journal
Possible Correlation between Cholinergic System Alterations and Neuro/Inflammation in Multiple Sclerosis
Open AccessReview

Free Fatty Acid Receptors 2 and 3 as Microbial Metabolite Sensors to Shape Host Health: Pharmacophysiological View

1
Department of Internal Medicine, Molecular Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27101, USA
2
Department of Animal Genetics and Breeding, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Science, Kolkata, West-Bengal 700037, India
3
Department of Biotechnology, PES University, Bangalore, Karnataka 560085, India
4
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Molecular Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27101, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomedicines 2020, 8(6), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8060154
Received: 1 May 2020 / Revised: 30 May 2020 / Accepted: 1 June 2020 / Published: 8 June 2020
The role of the gut microbiome in human health is becoming apparent. The major functional impact of the gut microbiome is transmitted through the microbial metabolites that are produced in the gut and interact with host cells either in the local gut environment or are absorbed into circulation to impact distant cells/organs. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are the major microbial metabolites that are produced in the gut through the fermentation of non-digestible fibers. SCFAs are known to function through various mechanisms, however, their signaling through free fatty acid receptors 2 and 3 (FFAR2/3; type of G-coupled protein receptors) is a new therapeutic approach. FFAR2/3 are widely expressed in diverse cell types in human and mice, and function as sensors of SCFAs to change several physiological and cellular functions. FFAR2/3 modulate neurological signaling, energy metabolism, intestinal cellular homeostasis, immune response, and hormone synthesis. FFAR2/3 function through Gi and/or Gq signaling, that is mediated through specific structural features of SCFAs-FFAR2/3 bindings and modulating specific signaling pathway. In this review, we discuss the wide-spread expression and structural homologies between human and mice FFAR2/3, and their role in different human health conditions. This information can unlock opportunities to weigh the potential of FFAR2/3 as a drug target to prevent human diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: FFAR2; FFAR3; microbiota; gut; immune; SCFA FFAR2; FFAR3; microbiota; gut; immune; SCFA
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Mishra, S.P.; Karunakar, P.; Taraphder, S.; Yadav, H. Free Fatty Acid Receptors 2 and 3 as Microbial Metabolite Sensors to Shape Host Health: Pharmacophysiological View. Biomedicines 2020, 8, 154.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop