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Open AccessArticle

Can the Molar Insulin: C-Peptide Ratio Be Used to Predict Hyperinsulinaemia?

by Lynda Guildford 1,2, Catherine Crofts 1,3,* and Jun Lu 1,2,4,5,6,7,*
1
School of Public Health and Interdisciplinary Studies, Faculty of Health and Environmental Sciences, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland 0627, New Zealand
2
School of Science, Faculty of Health and Environmental Sciences, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland 1010, New Zealand
3
Human Potential Centre, Faculty of Health and Environmental Sciences, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland 0632, New Zealand
4
Maurice Wilkins Centre for Molecular Biodiscovery, Auckland 1010, New Zealand
5
Institute of Biomedical Technology, Auckland University of Technology, Private Bag 92006, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
6
College of Life and Marine Sciences, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518071, China
7
College of Food Engineering and Nutrition Sciences, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710119, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomedicines 2020, 8(5), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8050108
Received: 18 March 2020 / Revised: 29 April 2020 / Accepted: 30 April 2020 / Published: 3 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Therapeutic Strategies in Different Diseases)
Hyperinsulinaemia is the precursor to numerous metabolic disorders. Early diagnosis and intervention could improve population health. Diagnosing hyperinsulinaemia is problematic because insulin has a very short half-life (2–5 min). It is theorised that c-peptide levels (half-life 20–30 min) would be a better proxy for insulin due to both hormones being released in equimolar amounts. However, the correlation between c-peptide and insulin levels is unknown. We aim to identify their correlation following a four-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Data were obtained from records of routine medical care at St Joseph’s Hospital, Chicago, IL, USA, during 1977. Two hundred and fifty-five male and female participants aged over 20 years undertook a four-hour OGTT with plasma glucose, insulin and c-peptide levels recorded. Correlation was assessed with Pearson’s correlation. There was a weak correlation between insulin and c-peptide, which increased to moderate across the four-hour OGTT (r = 0.482–0.680). There was no significant change in this relationship when data was subdivided according to either the WHO glucose status or Kraft insulin response. Although there was a correlation between insulin and c-peptide, it was too weak to recommend the use of c-peptide as an alternative biomarker for the diagnosis of hyperinsulinaemia. View Full-Text
Keywords: hyperinsulinaemia; insulin; c-peptide; oral glucose tolerance test; correlation; prediction hyperinsulinaemia; insulin; c-peptide; oral glucose tolerance test; correlation; prediction
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Guildford, L.; Crofts, C.; Lu, J. Can the Molar Insulin: C-Peptide Ratio Be Used to Predict Hyperinsulinaemia? Biomedicines 2020, 8, 108.

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