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Open AccessArticle

Enhancement of Amyloid β1–43 Production in the Lens Epithelium of Japanese Type 2 Diabetic Patients

1
Faculty of Pharmacy, Kindai University, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka 577-8502, Japan
2
Department of Ophthalmology, Kanazawa Medical University, 1-1 Daigaku Uchinada-machi, Kahoku-gun, Ishikawa 920-0293, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomedicines 2020, 8(4), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8040087
Received: 26 March 2020 / Revised: 10 April 2020 / Accepted: 11 April 2020 / Published: 13 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Therapeutic Strategies in Different Diseases)
We investigated whether the accumulation of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) is enhanced in the lenses of diabetic patients. Lens epithelium samples were collected from Japanese patients during cataract surgery, and the Aβ levels and gene expression of Aβ-producing and -degrading enzymes in the samples were measured by ELISA and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. The Aβ1–43 levels in lenses of non-diabetic patients were low (0.11 pmol/g protein), while the levels in lenses of diabetic patients were significantly (6-fold) higher. Moreover, the Aβ1–43/total-Aβ ratio in the lenses of diabetic patients was also significantly higher than non-diabetic patients (p < 0.05). In addition, the mRNA levels for Aβ-producing enzymes were also enhanced in the lenses of diabetic patients. In contrast to the results for Aβ-producing enzymes, the mRNAs for the Aβ-degrading enzymes in the lenses of diabetic patients were significantly lower than in non-diabetic patients (p < 0.05). Furthermore, Aβ1–43/total-Aβ ratio in lenses was found to increase with plasma glucose level. In conclusion, these results suggest that high glucose levels cause both an increase in Aβ production and a decrease in Aβ degradation, and these changes lead to the enhancement in Aβ1–43 accumulation in the lenses of diabetic patients. These findings are useful for developing therapies for diabetic cataracts and for developing anti-cataract drugs. View Full-Text
Keywords: amyloid β-protein; human lens epithelium; diabetic cataract; type 2 diabetes mellitus; Japanese amyloid β-protein; human lens epithelium; diabetic cataract; type 2 diabetes mellitus; Japanese
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mano, Y.; Otake, H.; Shibata, T.; Kubo, E.; Sasaki, H.; Nagai, N. Enhancement of Amyloid β1–43 Production in the Lens Epithelium of Japanese Type 2 Diabetic Patients. Biomedicines 2020, 8, 87.

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