Next Article in Journal
Evaluation of Chemical Strategies for Improving the Stability and Oral Toxicity of Insecticidal Peptides
Previous Article in Journal
Improved Methods for the Rapid Formation and Prevention of Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) In Vitro by Coupling to the Hypoxanthine/Xanthine Oxidase Assay System
Article Menu
Issue 3 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Biomedicines 2018, 6(3), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6030089

Contributions of Thyroid Hormone to Cancer Metastasis

1
Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Rensselaer, NY 12144, USA
2
Institute of Engineering in Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093, USA
3
PhD Program for Cancer Molecular Biology and Drug Discovery, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
4
Taipei Cancer Center, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031 Taiwan
5
Traditional Herbal Medicine Research Center of Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
6
TMU Research Center of Cancer Translational Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
7
Department of Human Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
8
Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
9
Department of Medicine, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY 12208, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 July 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 18 August 2018 / Published: 22 August 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [628 KB, uploaded 23 August 2018]   |  

Abstract

Acting at a cell surface receptor on the extracellular domain of integrin αvβ3, thyroid hormone analogues regulate downstream the expression of a large panel of genes relevant to cancer cell proliferation, to cancer cell survival pathways, and to tumor-linked angiogenesis. Because αvβ3 is involved in the cancer cell metastatic process, we examine here the possibility that thyroid hormone as l-thyroxine (T4) and the thyroid hormone antagonist, tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac), may respectively promote and inhibit metastasis. Actions of T4 and tetrac that are relevant to cancer metastasis include the multitude of synergistic effects on molecular levels such as expression of matrix metalloproteinase genes, angiogenesis support genes, receptor tyrosine kinase (EGFR/ERBB2) genes, specific microRNAs, the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) process; and on the cellular level are exemplified by effects on macrophages. We conclude that the thyroid hormone-αvβ3 interaction is mechanistically linked to cancer metastasis and that modified tetrac molecules have antimetastatic activity with feasible therapeutic potential. View Full-Text
Keywords: angiogenesis; cancer; cancer cell genes; epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT); integrin αvβ3; l-thyroxine; matrix metalloproteinases; metastasis; T4; tetrac; thyroid hormone angiogenesis; cancer; cancer cell genes; epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT); integrin αvβ3; l-thyroxine; matrix metalloproteinases; metastasis; T4; tetrac; thyroid hormone
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Mousa, S.A.; Glinsky, G.V.; Lin, H.-Y.; Ashur-Fabian, O.; Hercbergs, A.; Keating, K.A.; Davis, P.J. Contributions of Thyroid Hormone to Cancer Metastasis. Biomedicines 2018, 6, 89.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Biomedicines EISSN 2227-9059 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top