Next Article in Journal
The Peripheral and Intratumoral Immune Cell Landscape in Cancer Patients: A Proxy for Tumor Biology and a Tool for Outcome Prediction
Previous Article in Journal
GJA4/Connexin 37 Mutations Correlate with Secondary Lymphedema Following Surgery in Breast Cancer Patients
Article Menu
Issue 1 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Biomedicines 2018, 6(1), 24;

Carcinoembryonic Antigen Serum Levels in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

Department of Medical, Surgical Sciences and Advanced Technologies “G.F. Ingrassia”, University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy
Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Science, University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy
Research Centre “The Great Senescence”, University of Catania, 95120 Catania, Italy
Department of General Surgery, Policlinico “San Matteo”, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy
Hepatology Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy
Department of General Surgery and Medical-Surgery Specialties, University of Catania, 95100 Catania, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 January 2018 / Revised: 21 February 2018 / Accepted: 21 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [536 KB, uploaded 23 February 2018]   |  


Background: Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a glycoprotein, which is present in the foetal colon, some benign conditions and different malignancies, particularly in colon adenocarcinoma. We focused this study on non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). NMSC is a common malignancy and it is an important source of morbidity and death in the world. In this study we evaluated whether CEA level increases in NMSC. Patients and Methods: A total of 566 patients with non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) were enrolled; 286 patients with NMSC showed CEA levels above normal values, and 280 showed CEA levels below normal values. Patients with high levels of CEA underwent abdominal ultrasound, gastro endoscopy, colonoscopy, and abdominal CT scans. Results: We studied 566 patients, 286 were positive to CEA and 280 were negative. Of the 286 patients positive to CEA, 132 had basal cell carcinoma (64 patients had an associated cancer) and 154 had squamous cell carcinoma (75 patients were affected by cancer). Of the 280 patients negative to CEA, 130 had basal cell carcinoma (12 were associated with cancer), and 150 had squamous cell carcinoma (18 were associated with cancer). The mean age of the 566 case control subjects were 65–81 years. Of the 10 subjects that were the positive control for CEA, two had cancer. Of the 556 subjects that were the negative control for CEA, three had cancer. Conclusions: In patients that present high serum levels of CEA, we give attention to adenocarcinoma tumour first. The pattern of association may be attributable to bias because the group with NMSC were frequently evaluated than those with no history of NMSC. Our results showed that out of 286 patients that were CEA-positive, 139 had cancer, and of the 280 that were CEA-negative, 30 had cancer. Therefore, 20% of patients do not follow the trend. Other markers should be investigated. View Full-Text
Keywords: carcinoembryonic antigen; non-melanoma skin cancer; synchronous tumour; metachronous tumour; multiple tumours carcinoembryonic antigen; non-melanoma skin cancer; synchronous tumour; metachronous tumour; multiple tumours

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Latteri, S.; Catania, V.E.; Malaguarnera, G.; Peri, A.; Bertino, G.; Frazzetto, G.; Borzì, A.M.; Biondi, A.; Perrotta, R.E.; Malaguarnera, M. Carcinoembryonic Antigen Serum Levels in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer. Biomedicines 2018, 6, 24.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Biomedicines EISSN 2227-9059 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top