Next Article in Journal
Rac1 as a Target to Treat Dysfunctions and Cancer of the Bladder
Previous Article in Journal
Citrus limon L.-Derived Nanovesicles Show an Inhibitory Effect on Cell Growth in p53-Inactivated Colorectal Cancer Cells via the Macropinocytosis Pathway
Review

Joint Cartilage in Long-Duration Spaceflight

1
Werner Siemens Foundation Endowed Chair of Innovative Implant Development (Fracture Healing), Clinics and Institutes of Surgery, Saarland University, 66421 Homburg, Germany
2
Department of Trauma, Hand and Reconstructive Surgery, Clinics and Institutes of Surgery, Saarland University Medical Center, 66421 Homburg, Germany
3
Center of Experimental Orthopaedics, Saarland University Medical Center, 66421 Homburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Daniela Grimm and Ruth Hemmersbach
Biomedicines 2022, 10(6), 1356; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10061356
Received: 6 May 2022 / Revised: 5 June 2022 / Accepted: 6 June 2022 / Published: 8 June 2022
This review summarizes the current literature available on joint cartilage alterations in long-duration spaceflight. Evidence from spaceflight participants is currently limited to serum biomarker data in only a few astronauts. Findings from analogue model research, such as bed rest studies, as well as data from animal and cell research in real microgravity indicate that unloading and radiation exposure are associated with joint degeneration in terms of cartilage thinning and changes in cartilage composition. It is currently unknown how much the individual cartilage regions in the different joints of the human body will be affected on long-term missions beyond the Low Earth Orbit. Given the fact that, apart from total joint replacement or joint resurfacing, currently no treatment exists for late-stage osteoarthritis, countermeasures might be needed to avoid cartilage damage during long-duration missions. To plan countermeasures, it is important to know if and how joint cartilage and the adjacent structures, such as the subchondral bone, are affected by long-term unloading, reloading, and radiation. The use of countermeasures that put either load and shear, or other stimuli on the joints, shields them from radiation or helps by supporting cartilage physiology, or by removing oxidative stress possibly help to avoid OA in later life following long-duration space missions. There is a high demand for research on the efficacy of such countermeasures to judge their suitability for their implementation in long-duration missions. View Full-Text
Keywords: astronaut; cosmonaut; taikonaut; immobilization; unloading; weightlessness; microgravity; musculoskeletal system; osteoarthritis; bed rest astronaut; cosmonaut; taikonaut; immobilization; unloading; weightlessness; microgravity; musculoskeletal system; osteoarthritis; bed rest
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Ganse, B.; Cucchiarini, M.; Madry, H. Joint Cartilage in Long-Duration Spaceflight. Biomedicines 2022, 10, 1356. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10061356

AMA Style

Ganse B, Cucchiarini M, Madry H. Joint Cartilage in Long-Duration Spaceflight. Biomedicines. 2022; 10(6):1356. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10061356

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ganse, Bergita, Magali Cucchiarini, and Henning Madry. 2022. "Joint Cartilage in Long-Duration Spaceflight" Biomedicines 10, no. 6: 1356. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10061356

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop