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Article

Functionalized Surfaces as a Tool for Virus Sensing: A Demonstration of Human mastadenovirus Detection in Environmental Waters

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Laboratório de Microbiologia Molecular, Universidade Feevale, ERS 239, 2755, Novo Hamburgo RS 93352-000, Brazil
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Laboratório de Saúde Única, Feevale Techpark, Universidade Feevale, Av. Edgar Hoffmeister, 600–Zona Industrial Norte, Campo Bom RS 93700-000, Brazil
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NanoSYD, The Mads Clausen Institute, University of Southern Denmark, Alsion 2, 6400 Sønderborg, Denmark
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Programa de Pós-Graduação em Qualidade Ambiental, Universidade Feevale, ERS 239, 2755, Novo Hamburgo RS 93352-000, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alain Walcarius
Chemosensors 2021, 9(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9020019
Received: 16 December 2020 / Revised: 12 January 2021 / Accepted: 18 January 2021 / Published: 21 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Functional Surfaces for Chemical Sensing Platforms)
The main goal of this study was to apply magnetic bead surface functionalization in the form of immunomagnetic separation (IMS) combined with real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) (IMS-qPCR) to detect Human mastadenovirus species C (HAdV-C) and F (HAdV-F) in water samples. The technique efficiency was compared to a nonfunctionalized method (ultracentrifugation) followed by laboratory detection. Tests were carried out to standardize IMS parameters followed by tests on 15 water samples concentrated by IMS and ultracentrifugation. Microscopic analyses detected a successful beads–antibody attachment. HAdV was detected up to dilutions of 10−6 by IMS-qPCR, and samples concentrated by IMS were able to infect cell cultures. In water samples, HAdV-C was detected in 60% (monoclonal) and 47% (polyclonal) by IMS-qPCR, while 13% of samples concentrated by ultracentrifugation gave a positive result. HAdV-F was positive in 27% of samples by IMS-qPCR (polyclonal) and ultracentrifugation and 20% by IMS-qPCR (monoclonal). The rate of detection varied from 4.55 × 102 to 5.83 × 106 genomic copies/L for IMS-qPCR and from 2.00 × 102 to 2.11 × 103 GC/L for ultracentrifugation. IMS showed to be a more effective concentration technique for HAdV than ultracentrifugation, improving the assessment of infectious HAdV in water resources. View Full-Text
Keywords: immunomagnetic separation; IMS-qPCR; ultracentrifugation; HAdV; scanning electron microscopy; helium ion microscopy immunomagnetic separation; IMS-qPCR; ultracentrifugation; HAdV; scanning electron microscopy; helium ion microscopy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gularte, J.S.; de Oliveira Hansen, R.; Demoliner, M.; Fiutowski, J.; Eisen, A.K.A.; Heldt, F.H.; Rodrigues de Almeida, P.; Müller de Quevedo, D.; Rubahn, H.-G.; Rosado Spilki, F. Functionalized Surfaces as a Tool for Virus Sensing: A Demonstration of Human mastadenovirus Detection in Environmental Waters. Chemosensors 2021, 9, 19. https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9020019

AMA Style

Gularte JS, de Oliveira Hansen R, Demoliner M, Fiutowski J, Eisen AKA, Heldt FH, Rodrigues de Almeida P, Müller de Quevedo D, Rubahn H-G, Rosado Spilki F. Functionalized Surfaces as a Tool for Virus Sensing: A Demonstration of Human mastadenovirus Detection in Environmental Waters. Chemosensors. 2021; 9(2):19. https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9020019

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gularte, Juliana S., Roana de Oliveira Hansen, Meriane Demoliner, Jacek Fiutowski, Ana K.A. Eisen, Fagner H. Heldt, Paula Rodrigues de Almeida, Daniela Müller de Quevedo, Horst-Günter Rubahn, and Fernando Rosado Spilki. 2021. "Functionalized Surfaces as a Tool for Virus Sensing: A Demonstration of Human mastadenovirus Detection in Environmental Waters" Chemosensors 9, no. 2: 19. https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9020019

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