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Article

Cucurbit[8]uril-Based Potentiometric Sensor Coupled to HPLC for Determination of Tetracycline Residues in Milk Samples

LAQV-REQUIMTE, Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, R. Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
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Academic Editor: Boris Lakard
Chemosensors 2022, 10(3), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10030098
Received: 19 January 2022 / Revised: 18 February 2022 / Accepted: 1 March 2022 / Published: 3 March 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Directions in Ion Electroanalysis for Real World Applications)
The determination of chlortetracycline, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline in milk samples by HPLC coupled to a cucurbit[8]uril-based potentiometric sensor is herein presented. The new tetracycline-selective electrode is based on a polymeric membrane incorporating cucurbit[8]uril as a macrocyclic host, potassium tetrakis(p-chlorophenyl) borate as an ionic additive, 2-fluorophenyl 2-nitrophenyl ether as a plasticizer, and multi-walled carbon nanotubes as nanostructured materials. A microfluidic wall-jet flow-cell is implemented as a potentiometric detector after chromatographic separation by a C8 column using a gradient mobile phase of sulphuric acid and acetonitrile. The proposed methodology was validated following International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) and European Union (EU) guidelines. Linear regression models provided R2 in the range from 0.9973 ± 0.0026 to 0.9987 ± 0.0012 for all tetracycline antibiotics. The limits of detection and quantification ranged from 13.3 to 46.0 μg L−1 and 44.4 to 92.1 μg L−1, respectively. Precision intra-day, inter-day, and inter-electrode showed relative standard deviation values lower than 12.5%, 13.5%, and 12.9%, respectively. Accuracy was assessed by analysis of spiked milk samples around the maximum residue limit, yielding recovery values in the range from 81.3 to 108.5%. The simple, sensitive, cost-effective, and reliable HPLC-ion-selective electrode method justifies its use as a competitive alternative for the analysis of tetracycline residues in the food quality control sector. View Full-Text
Keywords: tetracycline antibiotics; milk; HPLC; potentiometry; ion-selective electrodes; cucurbit[8]uril tetracycline antibiotics; milk; HPLC; potentiometry; ion-selective electrodes; cucurbit[8]uril
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gil, R.L.; Amorim, C.M.P.G.; Montenegro, M.d.C.B.S.M.; Araújo, A.N. Cucurbit[8]uril-Based Potentiometric Sensor Coupled to HPLC for Determination of Tetracycline Residues in Milk Samples. Chemosensors 2022, 10, 98. https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10030098

AMA Style

Gil RL, Amorim CMPG, Montenegro MdCBSM, Araújo AN. Cucurbit[8]uril-Based Potentiometric Sensor Coupled to HPLC for Determination of Tetracycline Residues in Milk Samples. Chemosensors. 2022; 10(3):98. https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10030098

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gil, Renato L., Célia M. P. G. Amorim, Maria da Conceição B. S. M. Montenegro, and Alberto N. Araújo. 2022. "Cucurbit[8]uril-Based Potentiometric Sensor Coupled to HPLC for Determination of Tetracycline Residues in Milk Samples" Chemosensors 10, no. 3: 98. https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10030098

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