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A Multi-Country Analysis of Prevalence of Anxiety-Induced Sleep Disturbance and Its Associated Factors among In-School Adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa Using the Global School-Based Health Survey

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School of Public Health, Faculty of Health, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2007, Australia
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School of Public Health, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ho PMB 31, Ghana
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Department of Sociology and Social Policy, Lingnan University, 8 Castle Peak Road, Tuen Mun, Hong Kong, China
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Department of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast PMB, Ghana
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Neurocognition and Action-Biomechanics-Research Group, Faculty of Psychology and Sport Sciences, Bielefeld University, Postfach 10 01 31, 33501 Bielefeld, Germany
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Department of Population and Health, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast PMB TF0494, Ghana
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Department of Health Promotion, Education and Disability Studies, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi PMB AK, Ghana
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College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Services, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Healthcare 2021, 9(2), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9020234
Received: 22 January 2021 / Revised: 12 February 2021 / Accepted: 14 February 2021 / Published: 22 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Section School Health)
(1) Background: Among the health problems affecting adolescents, anxiety disorders are considered among the health-compromising or debilitating outcomes that affect adolescents’ mental health. We examined the prevalence and factors associated with anxiety-induced sleep disturbance among in-school adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). (2) Methods: This study involved a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS). We analyzed data on 25,454 in-school adolescents from eleven (11) countries in SSA with a dataset between 2010 and 2017. Two multivariable logistic regression models were built to determine the strength of the association between anxiety-induced sleep disturbance and the explanatory variables. The results of the regression analyses were presented using adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and their respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Statistical significance was set at p-value < 0.05. (3) Results: The overall prevalence of anxiety-induced sleep disturbance among in-school adolescents in SSA was 12.2%. The prevalence ranged from 5.1% in Tanzania to 20.5% in Benin. The odds of anxiety-induced sleep disturbance was higher among adolescents aged 15 and above [aOR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.39] compared to those aged 14 or younger. Additionally, the odds of anxiety-induced sleep disturbance was higher among adolescents who were bullied [aOR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.42, 1.67], those that felt lonely [aOR = 3.85, 95% CI = 3.52, 4.22], those who had suicidal ideations [aOR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.52, 1.90], those who had suicidal plan [aOR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.13, 1.41], those who have had suicidal attempt [aOR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.08, 1.35], those who used marijuana [aOR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.06, 1.52], and those who were truant at school [aOR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.22, 1.46]. However, male adolescents had lower odds of anxiety-induced sleep disturbance [aOR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.81, 0.95], compared to their female counterparts. (4) Conclusions: We found a relatively high prevalence of anxiety-induced sleep disturbance among in-school adolescents in SSA. Higher age, being female, being bullied, loneliness, having suicidal ideations/plan/attempt, use of marijuana and truancy were risk factors for anxiety-induced sleep disturbance. The findings, therefore, highlight the urgency for policies (e.g., early school-based screening) and interventions (e.g., Rational Emotive Behavioral Education (REBE), Social Emotional Learning (SEL) that target in-school adolescents within the most at-risk populations of anxiety-induced sleep disturbance in SSA. View Full-Text
Keywords: anxiety-induced sleep disturbance; in-school adolescents; mental health; rational emotive behavioral education; social emotional learning; sub-Saharan Africa anxiety-induced sleep disturbance; in-school adolescents; mental health; rational emotive behavioral education; social emotional learning; sub-Saharan Africa
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ahinkorah, B.O.; Aboagye, R.G.; Arthur-Holmes, F.; Hagan, J.E., Jr.; Okyere, J.; Budu, E.; Dowou, R.K.; Adu, C.; Seidu, A.-A. A Multi-Country Analysis of Prevalence of Anxiety-Induced Sleep Disturbance and Its Associated Factors among In-School Adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa Using the Global School-Based Health Survey. Healthcare 2021, 9, 234. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9020234

AMA Style

Ahinkorah BO, Aboagye RG, Arthur-Holmes F, Hagan JE Jr., Okyere J, Budu E, Dowou RK, Adu C, Seidu A-A. A Multi-Country Analysis of Prevalence of Anxiety-Induced Sleep Disturbance and Its Associated Factors among In-School Adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa Using the Global School-Based Health Survey. Healthcare. 2021; 9(2):234. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9020234

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ahinkorah, Bright O., Richard G. Aboagye, Francis Arthur-Holmes, John E. Hagan Jr., Joshua Okyere, Eugene Budu, Robert K. Dowou, Collins Adu, and Abdul-Aziz Seidu. 2021. "A Multi-Country Analysis of Prevalence of Anxiety-Induced Sleep Disturbance and Its Associated Factors among In-School Adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa Using the Global School-Based Health Survey" Healthcare 9, no. 2: 234. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9020234

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