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Open AccessArticle

A Clinical Diagnostic System for Late-Stage Neuropsychiatric Lyme Borreliosis Based upon an Analysis of 100 Patients

1
Department of Psychiatry, Rutgers-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
2
Department of Biology, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115, USA
3
Independent Researcher, Dorset BH23 5BN, UK
4
Independent Researcher, Easton, PA 18045, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Healthcare 2020, 8(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8010013
Received: 8 December 2019 / Revised: 23 December 2019 / Accepted: 3 January 2020 / Published: 6 January 2020
Many late-stage chronic Lyme disease clinical findings are neuropsychiatric. A total clinical assessment is critical in diagnosis, especially since controversy surrounds the reliability of laboratory testing. The clinical findings of one hundred Lyme disease patients with chronic neuropsychiatric symptoms were entered into a database. The prevalence of each clinical finding pre-infection and post-infection was compared and calculated within the 95% confidence interval. Patients had minimal symptoms pre-infection, but a high post-infection prevalence of a broad spectrum of acquired multisystem symptoms. These findings included impairments of attention span, memory, processing, executive functioning, emotional functioning, behavior, psychiatric syndromes, vegetative functioning, neurological, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, upper respiratory, dental, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and other symptoms. The most prevalent symptoms included sustained attention impairments, brain fog, unfocused concentration, joint symptoms, distraction by frustration, depression, working memory impairments, decreased school/job performance, recent memory impairments, difficulty prioritizing multiple tasks, fatigue, non-restorative sleep, multitasking difficulties, sudden mood swings, hypersomnia, mental apathy, decreased social functioning, insomnia, tingling, word finding difficulties, name retrieval, headaches, sound hypersensitivity, paresis, anhedonia, depersonalization, cold intolerance, body temperature fluctuations, light sensitivity and dysfluent speech. The average patient had five symptoms pre-infection and 82 post-infection. Pattern recognition is critical in making a diagnosis. This study was used to develop three clinical assessment forms. View Full-Text
Keywords: Lyme disease; clinical assessment; chronic Lyme disease; late-stage Lyme disease; neuropsychiatric Lyme disease; Borrelia burgdorferi; Lyme borreliosis; psychiatric; Lyme clinical assessment Lyme disease; clinical assessment; chronic Lyme disease; late-stage Lyme disease; neuropsychiatric Lyme disease; Borrelia burgdorferi; Lyme borreliosis; psychiatric; Lyme clinical assessment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bransfield, R.C.; Aidlen, D.M.; Cook, M.J.; Javia, S. A Clinical Diagnostic System for Late-Stage Neuropsychiatric Lyme Borreliosis Based upon an Analysis of 100 Patients. Healthcare 2020, 8, 13.

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