There have been many original and review articles summarizing the impact of nutrition and diet on breast cancer risk. However, very few consider the implication of genetic background and the effect of personalised nutrition on the risk and prognosis of breast cancer. A literature search was performed using the following databases: MEDLINE (Ovid), PubMed, Scopus and EMBASE (Ovid). The ensuing search terms were selected: genomics, nutrigenomics, breast cancer, breast neoplasms, cancer, nutrigenetics, diet–gene interaction, and Mediterranean, nutrition, polyphenols and diet. In this review, we discuss the Mediterranean-style diet and associated nutrients, evidence of benefit, impact on gene expression and evidence of interactions with genotype and how this interaction can modify breast cancer risk and progression. In addition, the impact of nutrients commonly associated with a Mediterranean-style diet, on breast cancer treatment, and synergistic effects are mentioned when modified by genotype. Some evidence exists around the benefit of a gene-based personalised diet based on a Mediterranean-style dietary pattern, but further evidence in the form of clinical trials is required before such an approach can be comprehensively implemented.
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