The Delivery of Health Promotion and Environmental Health Services; Public Health or Primary Care Settings?
- Surveillance of population health and well-being.
- Monitoring and response to health hazards and emergencies.
- Health protection, including environmental, occupational, food safety, and others.
- Health promotion, including action to address social determinants and health inequity.
- Disease prevention, including early detection of illness.
- Ensuring governance for health and well-being.
- Ensuring a sufficient and competent public health workforce.
- Ensuring sustainable organizational structures and financing.
- Advocacy, communication and social mobilization for health.
- Advancing public health research to inform policy and practice.
2. Materials and Methods
3.1. Health Promotion Services
3.2. Environmental Health Services
Conflicts of Interest
- Bettcher, D.W.; Sapirie, S.; Goon, E.H. Essential public health functions: Results of the international Delphi study. World Health Stat. Q. 1998, 51, 44–54. [Google Scholar] [PubMed]
- PAHO. PAHO Resolution CD 42.R14; PAHO: Washington, DC, USA, 2000. [Google Scholar]
- World Health Organization. Review of Public Health Capacities and Services in the European Region; World Health Organization: København, Denmark, 2012. [Google Scholar]
- Ashton, J. Public health and primary care: Towards a common agenda. Public Health 1990, 104, 387–398. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Rechel, B.; McKee, M. Facets of Public Health in Europe. European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies Series; Open University Press: Maidenhead, UK, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Hill, A.P.; Griffiths, S.; Gillam, S. Public Health and Primary Care: Partners in Population Health; Oxford University Press: Oxford, NY, USA, 2007. [Google Scholar]
- Felix-Bortolotti, M. Part 1—Unravelling primary health care conceptual predicaments through the lenses of complexity and political economy: A position paper for progressive transformation. J. Eval. Clin. Pract. 2009, 15, 861–867. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Kringos, D.S.; Boerma, W.G.; Hutchinson, A.; van der Zee, J.; Groenewegen, P.P. The breadth of primary care: A systematic literature review of its core dimensions. BMC Health Serv. Res. 2010, 10, 65. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- White, F. Primary health care and public health: Foundations of universal health systems. Med. Princ. Pract. 2015, 24, 103–116. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Brown, A.D.; Upshur, R.; Sullivan, T.J. Public Health and Primary Care: Competition or Collaboration? Healthc. Pap. 2013, 13, 4–8. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- WHO. Self-Assessment Tool for Evaluation of Essential Public Health Operations in the WHO European Region 2015. Available online: http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/Health-systems/public-health-services/publications/2015/self-assessment-tool-for-the-evaluation-of-essential-public-health-operations-in-the-who-european-region-2015 (accessed on 11 April 2018).
- Kringos, D.S.; Boerma, W.G.W.; Hutchinson, A.; Saltman, R.B. Building Primary Care in a Changing Europe. World Health Organization European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies. 2015. Available online: http://www.euro.who.int/en/publications/abstracts/building-primary-care-in-a-changing-europe (accessed on 28 April 2016).
- Lerberghe, W.V.; World Health Organization. The World Health Report 2008: Primary Health Care Now More Than Ever; World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2008; Available online: http://www.who.int/whr/2008/en/ (accessed on 3 March 2016).
- World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Health 2020 A European Policy Framework and Strategy for the 21st Century. WHO Regional Office of Europe 2013. Available online: http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/health-policy/health-2020-the-european-policy-for-health-and-well-being/about-health-2020 (accessed on 17 March 2016).
|Provision of early childhood care, including regular check-ups, preventive services and healthy child development services|
|Screening and treatment of sexually transmitted infections|
|Access to fertility treatments|
|Access to safe medical and surgical abortion|
|Breastfeeding counselling and support in special-needs situations|
|Nutritional care and support for children living with HIV|
|Nutrition for children in an emergency context|
|Folic acid supplementation|
|Empowerment of communities through local capacity-building, education, training and community mobilization|
|Community-based initiatives and partnerships|
|Establishment of information system, defining responsibilities and methodologies for data collection, analysis and use|
|Coherence of nutrition strategy with other policies related to health, agriculture, food safety, food industry, etc., information systems, monitoring and evaluation|
|Health promotion programs in community settings, including schools and workplaces|
|“Active transport” and urban development policies to promote walking and cycling, at the local and national levels|
|Efforts at a municipal or national level to ensure access to green space in urban environments|
|Communication campaigns to reduce obesity, including elements of diet and physical activity|
|Community-based strategies in sexual health education, including for vulnerable populations|
|Culturally sensitive communication campaigns to positively change social norms (on HIV, homosexuality, etc.)|
|Engagement with cultural and religious leaders to positively influence attitudes on sexual health|
|Quality of childbirth facilities, services and professionals|
|Information campaigns for the prevention of substance abuse, information systems, monitoring and evaluation|
|Performance of needs assessment research; generation of policy reports to obtain a comprehensive picture of mental health needs in the country|
|List of mental health services available within public health care system|
|Linkage with health and social services for prevention, detection, promotion and rehabilitation (including screening and prevention programmes for suicide and suicide risk)|
|Context-specific research on the causes of violence and effective prevention/protection strategies|
|Policies and programmes related to injury prevention, indicators and monitoring|
|Policies adapted to local conditions (urban versus rural, ethnic mix, gender issues, etc.) and developed in cooperation with local community leaders)|
|Strategy based on a critical analysis of the underlying causes for health inequities and identification of areas amenable to assessment|
|Development of information systems to track relevant target-based indicators, including income inequality, educational quality, access to healthy environments, employment opportunities, etc.|
|Measures aimed at building community support for health equity (e.g., through communication campaigns and awareness raising)|
|Youth-friendly sexual health services|
|Ensuring broad access to information on the harm done by tobacco consumption, exposure to second-hand smoke and the benefits of quitting|
|Provision of direct support to smokers wishing to quit within the health care system, both in primary care and in specialized services|
|Increased capacity for prevention, treatment and care for all individuals and families affected by harmful use of alcohol|
|Specific programmes targeted to vulnerable groups|
|Dissuasive warnings on consumption of illicit alcohol to public|
|Facility- and community-level breastfeeding programmes/support|
|Management of moderate and severe acute malnutrition in infants and young children|
|Intermittent supplementation of folic acid and iron for women in reproductive age|
|Nutritional support during emergencies for pregnant women|
|Nutrition education, including food safety and physical activity, included in curriculum|
|Specific food programmes for vulnerable populations (e.g., school lunch programme, food subsidies, etc.)|
|Programmes aimed at increasing intake of fruit and vegetables|
|Communication and educational programmes in community settings (health centres, workplaces, etc.)|
|Measures to identify and address malnutrition in adult and elderly populations|
|Family planning services|
|Linkage with health and social services for prevention, detection, promotion and rehabilitation (including screening and prevention programmes for suicide and suicide risk), monitoring and evaluation|
|Safe school environment for girls; skills-based education covering gender issues; promotion of girls’ education and empowerment|
|Use of reproductive/family planning services as entry points to support for victims|
|Research, analysis and dissemination|
|Defined roles in health and other sectors for a range of injuries and violence (poisoning, fires, drowning, falls, road traffic accidents, violence, etc.)|
|Public health approach followed (1) surveillance, (2) identification of risk factors, (3) development and evaluation, (4) implementation|
|Public Health||Primary Care|
© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Bjørn Jensen, L.; Lukic, I.; Gulis, G. The Delivery of Health Promotion and Environmental Health Services; Public Health or Primary Care Settings? Healthcare 2018, 6, 42. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare6020042
Bjørn Jensen L, Lukic I, Gulis G. The Delivery of Health Promotion and Environmental Health Services; Public Health or Primary Care Settings? Healthcare. 2018; 6(2):42. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare6020042Chicago/Turabian Style
Bjørn Jensen, Lene, Irena Lukic, and Gabriel Gulis. 2018. "The Delivery of Health Promotion and Environmental Health Services; Public Health or Primary Care Settings?" Healthcare 6, no. 2: 42. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare6020042