Factors Associated with Mental Health among Malaysian University Music Students: Roles of Fear of COVID-19, Nomophobia, Loneliness, Sleep Quality, and Socioeconomic Status
2. Literature Review and Theoretical Framework
3. Materials and Methods
3.1. Search Method
3.2. Study Design
- A minimum of 100 respondents with five or fewer latent variables, each of which must have three indications, are required.
- A minimum of 150 respondents with seven or fewer latent variables, each of which must have three indications, are required.
- 300 respondents are required, with certain latent variables having no more than three indications and no more than seven latent variables.
- 500 respondents are needed, and there are more than seven latent variables, some of which have fewer than three indications.
3.5. Statistical Method
- The ability to use latent variables, a feature of SEM that is unique in that they cannot be observed directly and are not used by other analysis techniques .
- The capacity to calculate and analyse the direct and indirect links between the research study’s variables .
- The capacity to demonstrate relationships between dependent variables suggests the estimation of multiple exogenous and endogenous variables simultaneously .
3.6. Research Framework
4.1. Descriptive Statistics
4.2. SEM Analysis
4.2.1. Validity and Reliability
4.2.2. Model Fitting
4.2.3. Structural Model
- Some studies involved “family chronic illness” and “mental wellbeing history” for analyzing anxiety, depression, and stress among university students [67,68]. However, we didn’t consider it in this research, but we think that this is one of the indicators that affects the mental health of the respondents.
- The study’s validity may be jeopardized because the data was self-reported. Because this method has been widely used in previous studies, we are confident that the data obtained are of high quality, and our data collectors stressed the confidentiality of all answers.
- Nomophobia may cause someone who is afraid of COVID-19 to use a smartphone to look for online help regarding their mental health. This should be researched further.
- We used nomophobia in our research model. “Technostress” is a well-known indicator that has been used in previous studies related to university students’ academic performance , sleep quality , anxiety and depression . It could be significant to use it for estimating university students’ mental health.
- It would be prudent to repeat the study during later phases of the pandemic and under normal conditions, as our study may have been a snapshot geared toward coping with COVID-19 in Malaysia’s last phases.
- This article describes a new study that used Bayesian SEM to examine the mental health of music university students at various educational levels. In the SEM technique, the significance of the variables is very important in measuring the strength of the relationship between variables. This would be a beneficial addition to future research to expand knowledge of mental health among music university students, which is becoming a serious issue that needs to be addressed.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Music students (number Percentage) Total = 691|
|General students (number Percentage) Total = 221|
|Research Variables||Music Students||General Students|
|Research Variables||Music Students||General Students|
|Music Students||General Students|
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Zhuang, C.; Jenatabadi, H.S. Factors Associated with Mental Health among Malaysian University Music Students: Roles of Fear of COVID-19, Nomophobia, Loneliness, Sleep Quality, and Socioeconomic Status. Healthcare 2023, 11, 18. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11010018
Zhuang C, Jenatabadi HS. Factors Associated with Mental Health among Malaysian University Music Students: Roles of Fear of COVID-19, Nomophobia, Loneliness, Sleep Quality, and Socioeconomic Status. Healthcare. 2023; 11(1):18. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11010018Chicago/Turabian Style
Zhuang, Chunmei, and Hashem Salarzadeh Jenatabadi. 2023. "Factors Associated with Mental Health among Malaysian University Music Students: Roles of Fear of COVID-19, Nomophobia, Loneliness, Sleep Quality, and Socioeconomic Status" Healthcare 11, no. 1: 18. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11010018