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Adverse Childhood Events, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Infectious Encephalopathies and Immune-Mediated Disease

1
Rutgers-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
2
Hackensack Meridian School of Medicine, Red Bank, NJ 07701, USA
Academic Editor: Kenneth J. Friedman
Healthcare 2022, 10(6), 1127; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10061127
Received: 7 May 2022 / Revised: 14 June 2022 / Accepted: 15 June 2022 / Published: 17 June 2022
Adverse Childhood Events (ACE), Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), and infectious encephalopathies are associated with immune-mediated diseases. Data supporting this are reviewed, and an integrated hypothesis is provided. All three can be associated with intrusive symptoms and temporal lobe pathology. ACE and PTSD are accompanied by an impaired mental capacity to differentiate external danger vs. safety. Infectious encephalopathies are accompanied by a failure of adaptive immunity and an impaired immune capacity to differentiate internal danger vs. safety. All three conditions are associated with impairments to differentiate danger vs. safety and adapt effectively. There are reciprocal interactions between ACE, PTSD, and infectious encephalopathies with accompanying persistent immune activation. This is associated with immune dysregulation, chronic hyperarousal, activation of the stress response, and impairments of the fear recognition and response neural circuits, hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, amygdala, and hippocampus. The pathophysiological processes can result in a broad spectrum of chronic neuropsychiatric and somatic symptoms and diseases. Understanding the psychodynamic, neurological, neuroimmune, inflammatory and autoimmune components of this interactive process expands the effective treatment opportunities. View Full-Text
Keywords: intrusive symptoms; autoimmune diseases; inflammation; trauma; tick-borne disease; Lyme disease; child abuse; immune; chronic infection intrusive symptoms; autoimmune diseases; inflammation; trauma; tick-borne disease; Lyme disease; child abuse; immune; chronic infection
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bransfield, R.C. Adverse Childhood Events, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Infectious Encephalopathies and Immune-Mediated Disease. Healthcare 2022, 10, 1127. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10061127

AMA Style

Bransfield RC. Adverse Childhood Events, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Infectious Encephalopathies and Immune-Mediated Disease. Healthcare. 2022; 10(6):1127. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10061127

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bransfield, Robert C. 2022. "Adverse Childhood Events, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Infectious Encephalopathies and Immune-Mediated Disease" Healthcare 10, no. 6: 1127. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10061127

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