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Effects of Industry 4.0 on the Labor Markets of Iran and Japan
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Consequences of Industry 4.0 in Business and Economics

Department of Economics, University of Hradec Králové, Rokitanskeho 62, 50003 Hradec Králové, Czech Republic
School of Economics, Management and Social Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 7194854358, Iran
Malaysia Japan International Institute of Technology (MJIIT), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Kuala Lumpur, Kuala Lumpur 54100, Malaysia
Center of Basic and Applied Research, Faculty of Informatics and Management, University of Hradec Králové, Rokitanskeho 62, 500 03 Hradec Králové, Czech Republic
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Economies 2018, 6(3), 46;
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 29 July 2018 / Accepted: 2 August 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economic Growth as a Consequence of the Industry 4.0 Concept)
The introduction of information technology into all aspects of our lives has brought forth qualitative and quantitative changes on such a large scale that this process has come to be known as the Fourth Industrial Revolution, or Industry 4.0. The aim of this paper is to fill in the gaps and provide an overview of studies dealing with Industry 4.0 from the business and economic perspectives. A scoping review is performed regarding business, microeconomic and macroeconomic economic problems. Four investigators performed a literature search of the Web of Science, Scopus, and Science Direct. The selected period spanned from 2014 to 2018, and the following keywords were used for the search: Industry 4.0, economics, economic development, production economics, and financial sector. A total of 2275 results were returned. In all, 67 full papers were screened. Results obtained from the relevant studies were, furthermore, divided into the following categories: work and skills development; economy growth and macroeconomic aspect; sustainability; intelligent manufacturing; policy; and change in business processes. Findings show that the aspects of work and skills development, smart technology adoption, intelligent manufacturing, and digitalization are very well described. The government and its policies usually play the role of a needed supportive element. Usually studies lack a coherent view of the topic in question and solve partial questions. View Full-Text
Keywords: consequences of Industry 4.0; economics; business processes; economy growth consequences of Industry 4.0; economics; business processes; economy growth
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MDPI and ACS Style

Maresova, P.; Soukal, I.; Svobodova, L.; Hedvicakova, M.; Javanmardi, E.; Selamat, A.; Krejcar, O. Consequences of Industry 4.0 in Business and Economics. Economies 2018, 6, 46.

AMA Style

Maresova P, Soukal I, Svobodova L, Hedvicakova M, Javanmardi E, Selamat A, Krejcar O. Consequences of Industry 4.0 in Business and Economics. Economies. 2018; 6(3):46.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Maresova, Petra; Soukal, Ivan; Svobodova, Libuse; Hedvicakova, Martina; Javanmardi, Ehsan; Selamat, Ali; Krejcar, Ondrej. 2018. "Consequences of Industry 4.0 in Business and Economics" Economies 6, no. 3: 46.

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