Perspectives on Assistive Systems for Manual Assembly Tasks in Industry
1.1. Collaborative Robots
- complexity of the tool, i.e., having to deal with malfunctions;
- fear of losing their job;
- fear of damaging the robot, also associated with their cost; and
- fear of injury caused by the robot.
1.2. Instructive Assistance Systems
2. Future Perspectives
2.1. Part 1: Human–Robot Collaboration (HRC)
- Educating workers for industrial HRC;
- New, more intuitive methods of controlling robots, so workers do not have to think about coordinates or the required movements of certain axes of the robot; and
- New modeling methods for assembly workflows that allow flexibility regarding whether the human or the robot performs the next task, to allow for example a seamless step-by-step integration of collaborative robots into a production line.
2.1.1. Educating Workers for Robot Collaboration
- Familiarization and basic operation, e.g., turning robots off, recovering from errors;
- Learning how to teach the robot and about specific tool types; and
- Safety aspects, e.g., testing that the robot actually stops.
2.1.2. New Ways of Controlling Robots
2.1.3. New Modeling Methods for Workflows
2.2. Part 2: Instructive Assistance Systems
- Important trends in mixed and virtual reality support (MR/VR) for industry;
- Opportunities and limitations of the different MR-based assistance systems;
- Tracking approaches for MR and their applicability for industrial applications; and
- Considerations when selecting and designing instructive assistance systems for manual assembly tasks.
2.2.1. Trends in Mixed and Virtual Reality Support (MR/VR) for Assembly Tasks
- VR as tool for the assembly and disassembly verification;
- MR as tool to support step-by-step instructions and remote assistance for hands-free work; and
- Game engines as standard tools for MR and VR development.
2.2.2. Evaluation of Different MR-Based Assistance Systems
2.2.3. Tracking Approaches for MR and Their Applicability for Industrial Applications
2.2.4. User-Centered Considerations for Instructive Assistance Systems
Conflicts of Interest
|AGV||automated guided vehicles (used in manufacturing)|
|AR/VR/MR||Augmented Reality/Virtual Reality/Mixed Reality|
|HMD||Head-Mounted Display, e.g., for AR|
|HRTM||Human Robot Time and Motion, a modeling method|
|MTM||Methods Time Measurement, a modeling method|
|RTM||Robot Time and Motion, a modeling method|
|SLAM||Simultaneous Location And Mapping|
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Wolfartsberger, J.; Hallewell Haslwanter, J.D.; Lindorfer, R. Perspectives on Assistive Systems for Manual Assembly Tasks in Industry. Technologies 2019, 7, 12. https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies7010012
Wolfartsberger J, Hallewell Haslwanter JD, Lindorfer R. Perspectives on Assistive Systems for Manual Assembly Tasks in Industry. Technologies. 2019; 7(1):12. https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies7010012Chicago/Turabian Style
Wolfartsberger, Josef, Jean D. Hallewell Haslwanter, and René Lindorfer. 2019. "Perspectives on Assistive Systems for Manual Assembly Tasks in Industry" Technologies 7, no. 1: 12. https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies7010012