The article explores how location affected the dynamics of accumulation of ascorbic acid (AC) and oxidized forms of AC—dehydroascorbic acid (DAA) and diketogulonic acid (DKGA) in beach pea during ontogenetic development. Our analysis focuses on research of the ecological and geochemical conditions growing of the plant on the Curonian Spit. The level of hydrogen peroxide and the activity of enzymes that break it down were analyzed. Antioxidant activity and the total concentration of phenolics were evaluated in the leaves of beach pea on the leeward and windward sides of the foredune. It was established that the level of AC, DAA, and DKGA was higher in the plants growing on the windward side of the foredune. A higher concentration of peroxy compounds, which stimulate the biosynthesis of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, ascorbate peroxidase), polyphenols, and other low molecular antioxidants (AOA) was observed in the leaves of these plants. The plants on the windward side enter phenological stages one or two weeks later than their counterparts on the leeward side of the foredune do. There was a generally negative correlation between the temperature of the soil and the accumulation of ascorbate system acids in the leaves of the studied plants (r = −0.46/(−0.68), p
< 0.05). The accumulation of low molecular antioxidants and enzymes in beach pea suggests their adaptation to the adverse conditions of the windward side of the foredune.
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