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Article

Development of Embryo Suspensors for Five Genera of Crassulaceae with Special Emphasis on Plasmodesmata Distribution and Ultrastructure

1
Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Faculty of Biology, University of Gdańsk, Wita Stwosza 59, 80-308 Gdańsk, Poland
2
Institute of Biology, Biotechnology and Environmental Protection, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Silesia, Jagiellońska 28, 40-032 Katowice, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2020, 9(3), 320; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9030320
Received: 7 February 2020 / Revised: 19 February 2020 / Accepted: 1 March 2020 / Published: 3 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms of Zygotic Embryogenesis in Plants)
The suspensor in the majority of angiosperms is an evolutionally conserved embryonic structure functioning as a conduit that connects ovule tissues with the embryo proper for nutrients and growth factors flux. This is the first study serving the purpose of investigating the correlation between suspensor types and plasmodesmata (PD), by the ultrastructure of this organ in respect of its full development. The special attention is paid to PD in representatives of Crassulaceae genera: Sedum, Aeonium, Monanthes, Aichryson and Echeveria. The contribution of the suspensor in transporting nutrients to the embryo was confirmed by the basal cell structure of the suspensor which produced, on the micropylar side of all genera investigated, a branched haustorium protruding into the surrounding ovular tissue and with wall ingrowths typically associated with cell transfer. The cytoplasm of the basal cell was rich in endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, dictyosomes, specialized plastids, microtubules, microbodies and lipid droplets. The basal cell sustained a symplasmic connection with endosperm and neighboring suspensor cells. Our results indicated the dependence of PD ultrastructure on the type of suspensor development: (i) simple PD are assigned to an uniseriate filamentous suspensor and (ii) PD with an electron-dense material are formed in a multiseriate suspensor. The occurrence of only one or both types of PD seems to be specific for the species but not for the genus. Indeed, in the two tested species of Sedum (with the distinct uniseriate/multiseriate suspensors), a diversity in the structure of PD depends on the developmental pattern of the suspensor. In all other genera (with the multiseriate type of development of the suspensor), the one type of electron-dense PD was observed. View Full-Text
Keywords: Aeonium; Aichryson; Echeveria; embryo; embryogenesis; endopolyploid cells; Monanthes; ovule; Sedum; symplasmic connection Aeonium; Aichryson; Echeveria; embryo; embryogenesis; endopolyploid cells; Monanthes; ovule; Sedum; symplasmic connection
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno, M.; Majcher, D.; Brzezicka, E.; Rojek, J.; Wróbel-Marek, J.; Kurczyńska, E. Development of Embryo Suspensors for Five Genera of Crassulaceae with Special Emphasis on Plasmodesmata Distribution and Ultrastructure. Plants 2020, 9, 320. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9030320

AMA Style

Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno M, Majcher D, Brzezicka E, Rojek J, Wróbel-Marek J, Kurczyńska E. Development of Embryo Suspensors for Five Genera of Crassulaceae with Special Emphasis on Plasmodesmata Distribution and Ultrastructure. Plants. 2020; 9(3):320. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9030320

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno, Małgorzata, Daria Majcher, Emilia Brzezicka, Joanna Rojek, Justyna Wróbel-Marek, and Ewa Kurczyńska. 2020. "Development of Embryo Suspensors for Five Genera of Crassulaceae with Special Emphasis on Plasmodesmata Distribution and Ultrastructure" Plants 9, no. 3: 320. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9030320

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