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Inventory of Medicinal Plants Used Traditionally to Manage Kidney Diseases in North-Eastern Morocco: Ethnobotanical Fieldwork and Pharmacological Evidence

Laboratory of Bioresources, Biotechnology, Ethnopharmacology and Health, Faculty of Sciences, Mohammed First University, Oujda 60040, Morocco
Laboratory of Biotechnology, Environment, Agrifood and Health, University of Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah, P.O. Box 1796, Fez 30000, Morocco
Laboratoire de Biologie des Ligneux et des Grandes Cultures, INRA USC1328, Orleans University, CEDEX 2, 45067 Orléans, France
Laboratoire d’Amélioration des Productions Agricoles, Biotechnologie et Environnement (LAPABE), Faculté des Sciences, Université Mohammed Premier, Oujda 60040, Morocco
Laboratoire TBC, Laboratory of Pharmacology, Pharmacokinetics, and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences, University of Lille, 3, rue du Professeur Laguesse, B.P. 83, F-59000 Lille, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2021, 10(9), 1966;
Submission received: 24 August 2021 / Revised: 15 September 2021 / Accepted: 15 September 2021 / Published: 20 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Updates on African Traditional Medicinal Plants Research)


Kidney disease is one of the most common health problems and kidney failure can be fatal. It is one of the health disorders associated with extreme pain and discomfort in patients. In developing countries, such as Morocco where socioeconomic and sanitary conditions are precarious, medicinal plants are considered the primary source of medication. In the present work an ethnobotanical survey was conducted in a remote area of North-Eastern Morocco and we focused on (1) establishing a record of medicinal plants used traditionally by local people to treat kidney diseases and (2) correlate the obtained ethnomedical use with well-studied pharmacological evidence. From February 2018 to January2020, information was gathered from 488 informants using semi-structured questionnaires. The data were analyzed using three quantitative indices: The use value (UV), family use value (FUV), and informant consensus factor (ICF). A total of 121 plant species belonging to 57 botanical families were identified to treat kidney diseases. The families most represented were Asteraceae (14 species), followed by Lamiaceae (12 species) and Apiaceae (10 species). The most commonly used plant parts were leaves, followed by the whole plant and they were most commonly prepared by decoction and infusion. The highest value of the (UV) index was attributed to Herniaria hirsuta L. (UV = 0.16), and the highest family use value (FUV) was assigned to Caryophyllaceae with (FUV = 0.163). Regarding the informant consensus factor (ICF), this index’s highest values were recorded for kidney stones (ICF = 0.72). The use of 45% of the selected plants were validated based on literature review. This study helped document and preserve crucial traditional plant knowledge of 121 plant species used to treat kidney problems that can be used in the search for new biologically active compounds through more upcoming pharmacological studies.

1. Introduction

Nowadays, kidneys and their problems have gained increasing interest concomitant with life changes, industrialization and malnutrition. Plants have always played a significant role in traditional medicine in underdeveloped countries and have also been an integral part of local communities’ history and cultural practices [1]. Medicinal plants have been recognized for centuries as a rich source of medicinal agents for preventing and treating a variety of ailments in Morocco [2]. Several researches conducted in different regions of Morocco indicated that people excessively use medicinal plants to meet their healthcare needs in Morocco (at least 75% of the population) [3,4] and it is due to several factors, such as the high cost of conventional medicines, the lack of adequate sanitary facilities, and frangible socioeconomic conditions of users, especially those living in poor, remote areas and also their safety and low incidence of adverse effects [5].
As other regions of Morocco, people living in North-Eastern Morocco have a common cultural past that dates back to the Arab civilization in the seventh century. The original cumulative culture has maintained a well-developed traditional knowledge of medicinal plants’ uses that form the basis of the traditional medical system existing until now [6,7]. Unfortunately, this local cultural and natural heritage is threatened with extinction. The decrease of these phyto-therapeutic practices and the degradation of phyto-genetic resources are due to several factors, mainly the lack of documentary databases related to traditional medical practices and the scarcity of ethnobotanical information archives aggravate this natural and cultural heritage loss.
Regarding, these ancestral medical practices in this country, we found that there are many investigations carried out in different regions of Morocco that deal with traditional use of medicinal plants for the treatment of renal diseases. In fact, an ethnobotanical survey conducted in the Fez-Meknes region was able to document traditional knowledge related to the 69 plant species belonging to 38 families, used as traditional remedies for the treatment of kidney diseases in this region [8]. In the Boulemane region of Morocco, Jouad et al. (2001) conducted an ethnobotanical survey to document traditional medicinal practices related to medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes and kidney disease, among which they identify 33 medicinal plants used specifically to treat kidney problems [9]. In addition, a study led by Khouchlaa et al. (2016) in the Rabat region provided a catalogue of 35 medicinal plants with information on therapeutic practices for treating urinary lithiasis [10]. All these ethnobotanical fieldworks cited are practically concentrated on a part of the Moroccan territory, which shows that the ancestral medical practices in this country have remained to be preserved with regard to kidney diseases.
To the best of our knowledge, no ethnobotanical survey on the use of medicinal plants used in treating kidney diseases has been conducted in North-Eastern Morocco, appealing this study to be conducted with the objective of (1) record, evaluate, and document medicinal plants and know-how related used by local people, in the control and healing of renal disorders, in six provinces of the North-Eastern region of Morocco, (2) make a quantitative analysis of traditional knowledge assigned to species inventoried, (3) provide pharmacological and toxicological data of the plant species listed in the present paper.

2. Results and Discussion

2.1. Socio-Demographic Data

2.1.1. Global Data

In Table 1, we regrouped the information on the participants’ sociodemographic characteristics in this study. The variable including age, gender, education level, income, and attitude toward medication. These data showed that 488 local informants were interviewed, including 476 non-specialists and 12 health herbalists (care professionals). The use of medicinal plants in the area of study is widespread in all age groups. As indicated in Table 1, participants in the age group [46–65 years] have more knowledge of medicinal plants than other age groups, with a frequency of use 53%, followed by the group [25–45 years] with 27%, age group [over 65 years] with 11% and the last group [under 25 years], with a percentage 9%. These results confirm the data indicated previously in other ethnobotanical studies conducted in other areas in Morocco [11,12]. The high proportion of participants was dominated by women, with 58% followed by men with 42%. The high possession of the traditional phytotherapy knowledge, detained by women, could be explained by the nature of women’s behaviors within their families; in fact, the women were frequently sitting at home and are responsible for the care of their children and to maintain the health of their families in the most effective and economic ways [13]. So, we can say that women were more connected to traditional practices than men. These results are consistent with other national work results [6,14,15,16]. Regarding the level of education, the results showed that 59% of the respondents were illiterate, followed by secondary and primary education categories, with percentages, respectively, of 17% and 14%. However, people with a university-level education represented a low percentage of 9%. These observations showed that traditional remedies used by people living in this region of study to treat renal diseases are affected by the educational level and age of participants. Our findings resonate with other results observed in other ethnobotanical fieldworks conducted in other Morocco regions [17,18,19].

2.1.2. Attitude of the Population toward Pattern of Uses

In this part of the text and for convenience, we divided medical practices, adopted by the population in North-Eastern Morocco, for treating renal diseases into three categories: those using only medicinal plants for these purposes, those using conventional medicine, and those using both traditional and conventional medicine. As indicated in Table 1, the population’s attitude in this region toward the treatment of renal diseases is variable. These data highlight the great diversity in patterns of use. The majority of interviewers cited traditional healthcare as their first-choice treatment option when they felt sick, with a percentage equaling to 54%, followed by the second choice, corresponding to the use of both conventional and herbal medicine, with a percentage of 33%, and in the third choice relative to the persons using exclusively modern medicine, with a percentage of 13%. Within the context of a dual health care system (traditional and western), the most significant determinants behind the participants’ attitude towards traditional medicine were the socio-economic factors and the residence of the users. Several factors were behind the driving force leading the majority of the interviewers toward traditional medicine. The results regrouped in Table 1 and Table 2 showed that the total people interviewed were living in remote areas and had a low socio-economic level. In addition to the lacking money and the high cost of modern medical treatment of renal diseases, the travel to cities, where the patients could have access to health facilities, constitutes a barrier to reach modern medicine and pull factors that attract people into seeking traditional treatments in the local area of study. This is congruent with studies conducted among populations in other Morocco regions [20].
Based on the information mentioned above, we deduced that informal health care approaches “traditional medication” have been reported to be shared among people living in this region, especially for renal diseases. Despite the population in this region’s lack of trust in the modern healthcare system, our findings confirm that patients still consider traditional medical practices a better option than conventional healthcare approaches.
So, according to these observations, we can say that the socio-economic conditions, patients’ residence, culture, and tradition influenced the user’s decision to use traditional healthcare approaches.

2.1.3. Source of Information

Among participants who chose informal healthcare as their first-choice treatment option, their subsequent decision to use standard healthcare options depended on their experiences or their initial interaction with the older and herbalists, when that exists. According to our results, most parts of ethnobotanical information generated from this inquiry were given by people living in remote areas. Based on this inquiry’s ethnobotanical information, we deduced that the accumulated experiences with age are the primary source of information at the local level. The highest age respondents provide more reliable information because they hold much of the oral tradition’s ancestral knowledge. However, the young generation detained less information related to traditional knowledge because they were influenced by modernization and exotic culture and the tendency to disinterest and the gradual mistrust of this herbal medicine. So, the present-day, the substantial holder of traditional knowledge, which is becoming very old, and the lack of interest among the younger generation as well as their tendency to migrate to cities to ensure their basic needs, could harm the transmission of the traditional know-how on medicinal plants of the elderly to the young people.
Consequently, the traditional indigenous knowledge that has been transferred orally, which is fast disappearing, is in danger, and there is a possibility of losing this wealth of knowledge shortly. Indeed, this traditional knowledge on phytotherapy, which is transmitted from one generation to the next, is on the verge of extinction if no effort is made to save it [21].

2.2. Diversity of Plants Species Used to Treat Kidney Diseases

In the present study, 121 species of medicinal plants belonging to 57 families were used to treat kidney diseases. Ethnobotanical information related to these plants’ use was documented, including vernacular names, traditional uses, parts used, method of preparation, and route of administration (Table 3).
The dominated families that have been used to treat and relieve renal disorders were the Asteraceae (14 species), followed by the Lamiaceae (12 species), the Apiaceae (10 species), Rutaceae, Poaceae and Fabaceae (5 species) each, Cucurbitaceae with (4 species), Rosaceae, Myrtaceae, Brassicaceae and Amaranthaceae with (3 species for each), while the other families represent less than three species (Figure 1). The predominance of Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, and Apiaceae, has already been proven in several ethnobotanical studies carried out in other Moroccan regions [14,22,23,24], as well as in other countries such as Turkey [25] and Italy [26]. Furthermore, the predominance of these plant families has already been confirmed in the results of specific ethnobotanical work for kidney disorders conducted in the Moroccan territory [17,22,27]. On the other hand, these botanical families dominate the Moroccan flora and are also almost omnipresent in the Moroccan territory [28].
As shown in Figure 2, the most preferred plant species used to treat kidney diseases in remote areas of North-Eastern Moroccan folk medicine were H. hirsuta with (106 use reports; 14.29% of total use reports), followed by A. graveolens (71 use reports; 9.57% of total use reports), P. crispum (52 use reports; 7.00% of total use reports), and Z. lotus (45 use reports; 6.06% of total use reports), Z. mays (39 use reports; 5.26% of total use reports), Z. officinale (37 use reports; 4.99% of total use reports), U. dioica (30 use reports; 4.04% of total use reports), T. campylodes (27 use reports; 3.64% of total use reports), T. microphylla (25 use reports; 3.37% of total use reports), and R. officinalis (19 use reports; 2.57% of total use reports). These ten species accounted for 60.78% of total use reports, and the remaining 101 species represent only 39.22% of total use reports. The frequent use of H. hirsuta, P. crispum, Z. lotus, and Z. mays against kidney pain are already confirmed in the results of a study conducted in the Fes-Meknes region of Morocco [19]. These four medicinal plants are widely used in Moroccan folk medicine to manage various diseases [4].

2.3. Ethnic Medicinal Characteristics

Used Plant Parts and Method of Preparation

In this survey, several parts of plant species are used as medicine (Figure 3). The most widely used medicinal plant part was the leaves with a frequency of 23%, followed by the whole plant with a percentage of 15%, aerial parts (12%), fruits (10%), seeds (7%), rhizomes (6%) and the other parts (stems, flowers, roots, bulbs, bark, and twig) are represented by a rate lower than 6%. Likewise, several communities in other regions of Morocco and other countries use leaves to prepare herbal medicines [29,30,31]. The frequent use of one part over another in herbal medicine depends on its active ingredient content. The leaves are the most exploited plant parts. This could be explained by the fact that they are both sites of photosynthesis and reservoirs of secondary metabolites that have [32,33]. The rapidity and ease of leaf harvesting also explain their predominance over other plant parts [29]. Besides, harvesting these organs is a relatively sustainable practice compared to other plant parts, such as roots and stem. The harvesting of the roots could contribute to the extermination and disappearance of the plants.
As shown in Figure 4, the preparation method most used by the population of North-Eastern Morocco for the treatment of kidney disorders is decoction with a frequency of 51%, followed by infusion (23%), powder, maceration, and juice with a percentage of 6% for each, oil (5%), and other methods of preparation represent only 3%. This high percentage of decoction shows that the local population grows at this mode of preparation and finds it suitable for warming the body and disinfecting the plant [34]. On the other hand, the decoction makes it possible to collect the most active ingredients and attenuates or cancels specific recipes’ toxic effects [35].

2.4. Commonly Treated Kidney Diseases and Noteworthy Plants

Traditionally, the local population uses the species inventoried in this survey to treat a wide range of kidney symptoms. Nevertheless, it should be noted that the most mentioned kidneys symptoms (Figure 5) are kidney stones (228 citations, 63 plants), followed by diuretic (87 citations, 46 plants), renal colic (76 citations, 32 plants), kidney detoxification (55 citations, 25 plants) and Pyelonephritis (31 citations, 12 plants). Some species such as H. hirsuta (106 use reports), A. graveolens (71 use reports), and P. crispum (52 use reports) were the most commonly used species for the treatment of kidney symptoms. The aerial parts of H. hirsuta, in decoction, are used against kidney stones, the infused leaves are used against Pyelonephritis and renal colic, the whole plant, in decoction, is used to relieve pain in the kidneys, and as well as for detoxifying the kidneys. The aerial part of A. graveolens, in decoction, is used against swelling of the kidneys, decocted roots are used to improve the kidneys’ performance, and the infusion of the aerial part against renal colic and kidney stones.

2.5. Quantitative Analysis

2.5.1. The Use Value (UV)

The local population’s choice to use certain medicinal species more than others to treat different kidney symptoms is confirmed by the use-value index (UV). The high score of this index reflects the importance of the plant in the study area population. The use-value (UV) results were presented in Table 3, with limited values between 0.16 and 0.0024. According to our results, H. hirsuta is the most used by the local population to treat renal disorders with high use value (UV = 0.161), followed by P. crispum (UV = 0.114), Z. lotus (UV = 0.083), Z. mays (UV = 0.052), Z. officinale (UV = 0.050), A. graveolens (UV = 0.040), U. dioica (UV = 0.036), T. microphylla (UV = 0.0355), H. annuus (UV = 0.034), T. campylodes (UV = 0.031), R. officinalis (UV = 0.024) and C. longa (UV = 0.021). The intensive use of these medicinal species by the population of North-Eastern Morocco is also mentioned with high percentages for the treatment of kidney diseases in the ethnobotanical study conducted in the Northcentral region of Morocco [9], and in other led in the region of Rabat on kidney stones [36].

2.5.2. Botanical Family Use Value (FUV)

As shown in Table 3, the distribution of botanical families of medicinal species in the study area fluctuated between a minimum importance value of 0.0023 and a maximum value of 0.161. Regarding the family use value of the plants recorded in this paper, the results show the high score for Caryophyllaceae (FUV = 0.163), followed by Lamiaceae (FUV = 0.106), Apiaceae (FUV = 0.099), Rhamnaceae (FUV = 0.084), Asteraceae (FUV = 0.083) Poaceae (FUV = 0.074), Asteraceae (FUV = 0.071), Zingiberaceae (FUV = 0.060), Rutaceae (FUV = 0.044), Thymelaeaceae and Urticaceae (FUV = 0.036) for each, Cucurbitaceae (FUV = 0.034) and Ericaceae (FUV = 0.024). The other families have the use value less than 0.024.

2.5.3. Informant Consensus Factor (ICF)

The ICF was calculated for each category of renal symptoms, and the index values range from a maximum significance value of 0.72 to a minimum value of 0.16 (Figure 6). Based on these results, we noted that the highest values of this index (ICF) were recorded for kidney stones (ICF = 0.72) with 63 plant species, followed by Pyelonephritis (ICF = 0.63) with 12 plant species, renal colic (ICF = 0.58), kidney poisoning (ICF = 0.56) and diuretic (ICF = 0.47). High values (close to 1) of this index for kidney stones and pyelonephritis indicate that few species were used by a large proportion of informants for each of these two disease categories. For kidney inflammation and urinary retention, the index values were ICF = 0.16 and ICF = 0.22, which means that the number of citations is almost equal to the number of plants used by informants to treat these symptoms. High ICF values for kidney stones may be due to their high incidence of occurrence in the study area [37].

2.6. Pharmacological Validation from Literature

Our ethnobotanical fieldwork indicated that people living in North-Eastern Morocco have important knowledge regarding the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of renal diseases. These ethnobotanical data, which described a wide variety of quantitative indicators, were very interesting for bioprospection purposes. It could be interesting to screen in the literature these plants for their pharmacological activities.
According to the studied literature, among 121 medicinal species inventoried during this survey, 54 plants were studied for their pharmacological properties against kidney disorders, which seems that traditional medicine could be an excellent classical basis for the selection of plant species against kidney problems. The grouped pharmacological data (the plant’s scientific name, the part extracted from the plant; the type of extracts; the experimental model used; the dose used, and the pharmacological effect) of these 54 plants were summarized in Table 4.
Among 121 medicinal plants listed in our survey, three plant species, H. hirsuta, A. graveolens, and P. crispum have been the most cited by North-Eastern Morocco people to treat or prevent the traditionally multiple forms of kidneys. In the following paragraphs, we will discuss the potential of these three plants to validate their activity against kidney disorders:
H. hirsuta is ranked first as the most cited plant (14.29% of total use reports). According to the traditional knowledge of the North-Eastern Moroccan population, this plant is considered a powerful and common medicinal herb that has shown significant results in treating kidney stones; renal colic; pyelonephritis; kidney pain; diuretic; detoxification of the kidneys; and polycystic kidney disease. From a pharmacological point of view, the aqueous extract of the aerial part of this plant has an inhibitory effect on the crystallization of calcium oxalate in vitro at doses of 0.0625 mg/mL and 0.5% of plant extracts in physiological solution (9 g of NaCl /L) [96,97], and in vivo at a concentration of 50 mg/mL [98], also has an effect on cystine stones in different patients with congenital cystinuria at a dose of 20 g/L [101]. Phytochemical studies have reported and identified some components of H. hirsuta include flavonoids, coumarin, tannins and saponins [100,171,172,173]. The active component in the prevention of lithiasis has not yet been identified. However, the literature suggests that the antilithiatic potential of H. hirsuta is attributed to saponins with a high probability [171,174]. Recently, a phytochemical study conducted to identify the bioactive constituents of H. hirsuta has shown that the aerial part of this plant is rich in phenolic compounds (Figure 7a,b) [171]. According to the literature, these compounds are well known for various pharmacological effects [175,176,177,178,179]. Therefore, the antilithiasic activity of H. hirsuta may be due to the presence of these compounds.
Apium graveolens L. is ranked second, with a percentage of citations of (9.57% of total use reports). It is commonly used to treat several kidney problems: improved kidney performance, kidney swelling, kidney stones, kidney detoxification, kidney pain, diuretic, renal colic, and renal polycystic. The aerial part of Apium graveolens L. accentuates urinary excretion of Ca2+ in an experimental model of nephron-calcinosis in rabbits at an amount of 8 g/kg added to the animal feed [48]. The ethanolic extract from the stem and leaves of Apium graveolens L. demonstrated in vivo a protective effect on kidney damage in the model of rats with ischemia/reperfusion at a dose of 1000 mg/kg body weight [49]. The ethanolic extract and essential oils of fruits of Apium graveolens L. have a diuretic effect in vivo in dogs at doses (25 mg/kg; b.w) for the ethanolic extract and (0.004 mL/kg; b.w) for essential oils [50]. The presence of phenolic compounds in the parts of Apium graveolens L. is the reason why celery is the plant most used in traditional medicine [180,181]. Previously published photochemical studies have shown that extracts of Apium graveolens L. are rich in bioactive compounds such as polyphenols and flavonoids [182,183] (Figure 8). It is well known that these secondary compounds present in Apium graveolens L. have considerable pharmacological activities, suggesting that the activities mentioned below may be due to these secondary metabolites.
P. crispum is ranked third as the most cited plant with 7.00% of total use reports. The North-Eastern people of Morocco use this plant against kidney stones, renal colic, and kidney inflammation. The ethanolic extract from the leaves and stem of P. crispum has protective effects on acute renal damage induced by ischemia/reperfusion in vivo in rats at doses 100, 150, and 200 mg/kg body weight [133]. At a 200 mg/kg bodyweight concentration, the seeds ethanolic extract showed a protective effect on histopathological changes in the kidneys induced by sodium valproate in male rats [134]. The juice of P. crispum has an ameliorative effect against cadmium-induced changes in lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, and catalase activity in the kidneys of albino male mice [135]. The aqueous extract from these plant leaves attenuates serum uric acid levels and improves liver and kidney structures in oxolane-induced hyperuricemia rats at doses 3.5, 7.0, 10.5 g/kg of the body weight [136]. Indeed, the pharmacological properties of P. crispum are mainly discussed by a wide range of active biomolecules present in this plant. Phytochemical constituents of P. crispum were isolated from seeds, roots, leaves or petioles through different separation methods [184]. These phytochemical constituents can be grouped into flavonoids, carbohydrates, coumarins, essential oils and other various compounds. A literature review conducted by Agyare et al. (2017) shows that flavonoids are the most dominant compounds of P. crispum such as isorhamnetin, apigenin, quercetin, luteolin, diosmetin 7-O—D-Glucopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (Figure 9) [184]. These phytochemicals may be at the origin of the pharmacological activities of P. crispum against the kidney disorders mentioned above.

2.7. Constraints of Medicinal Plant’ Uses

Adherence to traditional medical practices by people living in remotes areas of North-Eastern Morocco should be taken with great care. Skepticism, which is, in most cases, based on personal or peer experience regarding the use of medicinal plants, especially the safety and efficacy of the herbal treatment of renal disease. Some medicinal plants’ toxicity, which some users often overlook because of the incorrectly held belief that herbal medications are innocuous, remained critical. The use of medicinal plants faces many problems related to these herbs’ safety that could harm health. This conception was identified as a barrier to some participants that they felt distraught. We know that folk medicine, especially herbal medications, lack the required essential standards of consistency in the pharmacologically active principles of second metabolites containing in these herbs. Besides, the incorrect identification leading to substitution of an innocuous herb, the process of extraction, the adulteration, and the standardization of the use of these herbs contribute to the dangerousness of these herbs.
Several assumptions confirm these. Our team reported that some common plants used as medicine by people in North-eastern Morocco, such as A. baetica and B. dioica, have evidence of significant concern nephrotoxicity [185]. According to these authors, this toxicity’s causal factors are threefold; the substitution, the misidentification, and the toxic compounds containing in these two species (Aristolochic acid in A. baetica and cucurbitacin in B. dioica). Another work, published recently by our team reviewed toxic plants in the region, indicated that out of 287 medicinal plants used by local people, 87 plant species had been identified as toxic [186]. In the current work, we found that out of 121 medicinal plant species used traditionally to treat renal diseases, only seven plant species have been identified as toxic by the respondents. The information reported during our interview showed that E. spinosissimus and B. cretica subsp. Dioica, used separately, could have toxic effects targeting the nervous system leading to excitement and convulsive effects; the consumption of L. usitatissimum could have some physiological turbulence such as colic, numbness, and/or respiratory acceleration; A. succotrina, when ingested, could have intense organic congestion, eczematous dermatitis, the bulbs of D. maritima, in decoction, causes digestive disorders with vomiting, the use of C. litoralis subsp. telephiifolia. at high dose could have intense diarrhea, and prolonged treatment with the aerial part of G. glabra can lead to the digestive system’s neuronal toxicity and disorders. The literature review revealed that among the seven species cited as toxic by the local population, three species were studied for their toxic effects on the laboratory. Hydroethanolic extract of the roots of C. litoralis subsp. telephiifolia. Showed toxicity in mice with the oral mean lethal dose (LD50) value of 14,000 mg/kg body weight [187]. D. maritima showed a cytotoxic effect against cancer cells of different lines as in the cell line of non-small cell lung cancer A549 (NSCLC) with IC50 = 0.02 µg/mL and in human cervical cancer cell lines Siha and Hela, hosting HPV16 and HPV 18, respectively [188,189]. The aqueous extract of the roots of B. cretica subsp. Dioica. showed cytotoxic and apoptogenic activity in Burkitt BL41 lymphoma cell lines at a dose of 125 g/mL [187].
From these observations, we can deduce that although these plants were used traditionally by local people for the treatment of renal diseases and are considered to be safe, for some respondents, they may cause damage due to their unwanted side effects. Therefore, studying medicinal plants’ side effects would have an influential role in identifying and diagnosing the herbs’ safety profile. So, medicinal plants’ consumption without studies of efficacy and safety can result in several side effects that may affect people’s health.

3. Materials and Methods

3.1. Study Area

The study was conducted in North-Eastern Morocco (Figure 10). This region is limited in the North by the Mediterranean Sea (200 km of coastline), in the East by Moroccan-Algeria fronter, in the south by part of the desert (Figuig province), and in the west by a part of middle Atlas (Taza province). The region includes Benisnassen, Rif, and Horst’s mountainous area, culminating respectively to 1800 m and 1500 m. These geographical features provide the region with a Mediterranean climatic zone that is characterized by hot and dry summers while winters are more cool and wet with average rainfall between 100 mm per year in the South (Saharan bioclimatic zone) and 400 mm per year in the North (Influenced by the Mediterranean Sea). Additionally, the region encompasses several Sites of Biological and Ecological Interest (SBEI) and protected areas such as Benisnassen, Jbel Gorougou. Indeed, these sites had already been identified for their original flora as well as for their biological and ecological qualities [4]. According to the national census conducted in 2014, the region’s total area is 90,130 km2, representing 12% of the national territory. Historically, North-Eastern Morocco people have a shared cultural past dating back to the Arab civilization in the seventh century. The cumulative traditional culture, related to ethnobotanical knowledge, has been maintained until now and constitutes the basis for the region’s traditional medical system [6,7].

3.2. Ethnobotanical Survey

In order to collect the traditional knowledge about medicinal plants used by people living in the study area, an ethnobotanical survey was conducted from February 2018 to January 2020 in thirteen rural communes of the North-Eastern region of Morocco (Table 2) spread over six provinces (Guercif, Taourirt, Jerada, Berkane, Nador, Oujda-Angad). The ethnobotanical data were randomly selected at thirteen sites visited by conducting semi-structured interviews with 476 respondents from the local population and 12 traditional herbalists. The application of simple random sampling achieved the selection of informants. This sampling technique has the main advantage of ensuring the representativeness of the population. Informants who do not live in the study area are excluded from this study. The questionnaire used consists of two parts: the first one focused on the demographic characteristics of the participants (age, gender, level of education, ethnomedicinal knowledge sources and income of participants…), and the second one focuses on the plant species used in popular medicine for the treatment of kidney disease (vernacular name, parts used, methods of preparation and route of administration).

3.3. Identification of Medicinal Plant Species

All local names of plants collected during this study were translated into botanical names, based on the following references [7,190]. For the authentication and the accuracy of plant names listed in this paper of scientific names, we consulted documents specializing in the taxonomy of Moroccan flora (Then, the identification was performed by using standard floras available in Morocco [191,192,193,194,195,196]. For the accuracy and authentication of the scientific nomenclature, the plants recorded were checked against database available online: Catalogue of Life: 2019 Annual Checklist ( (accessed on 13 April 2020), the Plant List ( (accessed on 13 April 2020) and African Plant Database ( (accessed on 15 April 2020). Only the plant names accepted in these databases were retained. Following the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group IV (2016), the plant families listed in this paper were checked with database APG-IV 2016 [197].
Once the name of each plant species selected was identified correctly, the whole or a part of the picked plants were pressed with a plant press and dried properly. A voucher number was attributed to each specimen and deposited in the Herbarium (HUMPOM), at Mohammed first University, Oujda, Morocco.

3.4. Quantitative Data Analysis

3.4.1. Medicinal Use Value (UV)

To give the relative importance of each plant species known locally to be used in popular medicine, we calculated the use-value (UV) for each species. This index was calculated using the following formula [198]:
UV = U N
where UV = use value of species, U = number of quotations per species, N = number of informants.
The value of UV will be higher if there are many reports of use for a plant, which implies that the plant is important, while they will be close to zero if there are few reports related to its use.

3.4.2. Botanical Family Use Value (FUV)

In order to assess the relationship between botanical families and users of species belonging to these families, we used the index called Family Use Value (FUV) which is equal to the average total use value for each species in the family [199].
where FUV = family use value, which equals the average total use value for each species in the family, UV = use value of the species belonging to the family, N = number of species in the family.

3.4.3. Informant Consensus Factor (ICF)

To know about informants’ agreement and consensus, we calculated Index Consensus Factor (ICF) by using the following formula [200]:
ICF = Nur Nt Nur 1
where Nur is the number of use-reports for a particular ailment category, Nt refers to the number of taxa used for a particular ailment category by all informants.
The ICF values’ margin varies between 0 and 1, where values close to 0 show that the plants are randomly selected or that there is no exchange of information on their use among the informants. Values close to 1 are obtained when there is a well-defined selection criterion within the given community and/or if the information is exchanged between informants.

3.5. Bibliographic Review

A review of the available literature on the plants’ biological activities identified against kidney disease was undertaken using the following electronic databases: PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Web of Science using the following keywords “kidney disease”, “renal disease”, “renal insufficiency”, “nephropathy”, combined with the scientific name of the plant. Chemical structures of plant compounds were performed by Chem Draw 18.1 software.

4. Conclusions

This survey showed that people living in North-Eastern Morocco’s remote areas still use medicinal plants to treat ailments, especially renal diseases. The choice of these people was based on their socio-economic and cultural conditions. This preference offered the best chance for them to manage renal sequelae. The people in the study region found that traditional uses of medicinal plants possess suitable healing properties. The results demonstrate the promising role of medicinal plants in managing this particular health problem for these users. However, this preference should be taken with great care. To confirm their therapeutic uses, more investigations are needed to approve the safety and efficacy of their bioactive compounds. Additionally, in predicting the traditionally believed effects of these herbs, researchers need to find out the actuality of their clinical effectiveness and active substances. Once the positive effects of these herbs were proved to be accurate, it is possible to produce drugs useful in the treatment of renal disorders.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, N.B. and M.E.; methodology, N.B. and A.E.; software, L.K., C.H., M.A., H.O. and M.B.; validation, B.E. and I.A.M.; investigation, N.B. and A.E. data curation, H.M. and I.E.-s.; writing—original draft preparation, N.B.; supervision, M.E. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


This work did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Institutional Review Board Statement

Not applicable.

Informed Consent Statement

Not applicable.

Data Availability Statement

All the data are included in the present study.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Figure 1. Dominant botanical families.
Figure 1. Dominant botanical families.
Plants 10 01966 g001
Figure 2. Plant species commonly used traditionally by local people to treatkidney disease.
Figure 2. Plant species commonly used traditionally by local people to treatkidney disease.
Plants 10 01966 g002
Figure 3. Percentage of the different parts used.
Figure 3. Percentage of the different parts used.
Plants 10 01966 g003
Figure 4. Percentage of different mode of preparation.
Figure 4. Percentage of different mode of preparation.
Plants 10 01966 g004
Figure 5. Distribution of plants used traditionally to treat various kidney syndromes.
Figure 5. Distribution of plants used traditionally to treat various kidney syndromes.
Plants 10 01966 g005
Figure 6. Informant consensus factor (ICF).
Figure 6. Informant consensus factor (ICF).
Plants 10 01966 g006
Figure 7. (a) Bioactive compounds found in Herniaria hirsuta L. extracts; (b) Bioactive compounds found in Herniaria hirsuta L. extracts.
Figure 7. (a) Bioactive compounds found in Herniaria hirsuta L. extracts; (b) Bioactive compounds found in Herniaria hirsuta L. extracts.
Plants 10 01966 g007aPlants 10 01966 g007b
Figure 8. Bioactive compounds from Apium g. extracts.
Figure 8. Bioactive compounds from Apium g. extracts.
Plants 10 01966 g008
Figure 9. Bioactive compounds from Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss extracts.
Figure 9. Bioactive compounds from Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss extracts.
Plants 10 01966 g009
Figure 10. Geographical location of the study area.
Figure 10. Geographical location of the study area.
Plants 10 01966 g010
Table 1. Socio-demographic characteristics of the informants in North-Eastern Morocco.
Table 1. Socio-demographic characteristics of the informants in North-Eastern Morocco.
Distribution of Informants Categories Number of InformantsPercentage of Informants (%)
By sexMen20742
By age rangeLess than 25 years429
More than 65 years5411
By education levelIlliterate29059
Primary education 6914
Secondary education 8517
University education 449
By income/monthUnemployed31164
500–2000 DH *10822
2000–6000 DH *5311
>6000 DH *163
By choice of medicineHerbal medicine26454
Both conventional and herbal medicine16133
Modern medicine6313
* 1 MAD (Moroccan Dirham) = 0.11 USD (United States Dollar).
Table 2. Number of informants for each station.
Table 2. Number of informants for each station.
ProvincesStationsNumber of Informants
GuercifRas Laksar220
JeradaAin Benimathar171
Bni Sidel Jbel180
Oujda-AngadBni Drar691
Sidi Moussa Lemhaya120
Total18 stations47612
Table 3. List of medicinal plants species used by local people for the treatment of kidney diseases.
Table 3. List of medicinal plants species used by local people for the treatment of kidney diseases.
Scientific Name (Voucher Number) Local/English NameTherapeutic UsesPart Used/Mode of Preparation/Mode of AdministrationCommon Traditional DosagesURUVFUV
Allium cepa L. (HUMPOM628)

Renal insufficiency, renal colic, kidney stones, diureticbu, st, fr/jui, dec/oral-



Allium sativum L. (HUMPOM631)الثوم/GarlicRenal insufficiency, kidney stones, kidney inflammation, pyelonephritis, polycystic kidney diseasebu/dec-20.005
Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f (HUMPOM632)

الالوفيرا/Aloe v.

Renal insufficiency, polycystic kidney disease

wp, ap/jui, dec/oral

Spoon, glass



Aloe succotrina Lam. (HUMPOM629)الصبار/Fynbos aloeRenal insufficiencywp, ap/jui/oralSpoon, glass20.005
Anabasis aretioides Moq. and Coss. ex Bunge * (HUMPOM692)


Diuretic, polycystic kidney disease





Beta vulgaris subsp. adanensis (Pamukç.) Ford-Lloyd and J.T. Williams (HUMPOM630)باربة/beetrootDiureticrt/mac/oralHandful10.002
Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin and Clemants (HUMPOM693)مخينزة/Mexican teaDiuretic, kidney stoneslf/inf, dec/oralHandful, Teapot30.007
Pistacia atlantica Desf. * (HUMPOM694)

لبطم/Atlas mastic tree






Pistacia lentiscus L. * (HUMPOM632)المسكةالحرة, ذرو/Mastic treeDiuretic, renal insufficiency, kidney stoneslf/dec, inf/oralSpoon, handful30.007
Daucus carota L. * (HUMPOM696)

زرودية, خيزو/Wild carrot

Renal pain, diuretic, pyelonephritis



Foeniculum vulgare Mill. * (HUMPOM697)النافع/FennelKidney stones, renal colic, renal detoxificationse, lf/inf, tis, dec/oralHandful, spoon, teapot80.019
Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss * (HUMPOM695)المعدنوس, البقدونس/ParsleyKidney stones, renal colic, renal detoxification
Renal pain, diuretic, kidney inflammation, polycystic kidney disease
wp, lf, ap, st, se, rt/inf, mac, dec, oil, jui /oralTeapot, pinch handful,480.114
Ammi visnaga (L.) Lam. * (HUMPOM698)البشنيخة/Toothpick-plantKidney stones, renal pain, renal colic, polycystic kidney diseasese, fr, lf/dec, inf, mac/oralSpoon, glass70.017
Ammodaucus leucotrichus Coss. * (HUMPOM699) الكمون الصوفي/-Renal colic, polycystic kidney diseaself/dec/oralHandful10.002
Apium graveolens L. * (HUMPOM633)الكرافس/CeleryImproved kidney performance, kidney swelling, kidney stones, renal detoxification, renal pain, diuretic, renal colic, polycystic kidney diseasert, tw, ap, lf/inf, dec/oralGlass, teapot170.040
Coriandrum sativum L. * (HUMPOM700)قصبور/CorianderKidney stones, diureticwp, ap, lf/inf, dec/oralGlass, teapot50.012
Cuminum cyminum L. (HUMPOM701) الكمون/CuminDiuretic, kidney stoneslf/inf, dec/oralSpoon20.005
Daucus crinitus Desf. * (HUMPOM702)بوزفور/Common carrot Detoxification of the kidneysrt/dec/oralteapot10.002
Pimpinella anisum L. (HUMPOM703)حبة حلاوة/AniseedDiuretic; kidney stonesfr, lf/dec/oralSpoon10.002
Caralluma europaea (Guss.) N.E.Br. * (HUMPOM634)


Urine retention, kidney stones, polycystic kidney disease

wp, ap/inf/oral




Asphodelus microcarpus Salzm. and Viv. (HUMPOM745)

البروغ/Common asphodel






Panax bipinnatifidus var. angustifolius (Burkill) J.Wen (HUMPOM635)





Echinops spinosissimus Turra * (HUMPOM704)

تسكرة/Spiny globe thistle

Diuretic, kidney stones, polycystic kidney disease

ap, rt/inf, dec/oral

Spoon, teapot



Helianthus annuus L. (HUMPOM636)نوار الشمس/SunflowerRenal pain, kidney inflammationse, fl/dec, inf, mac/oralSpoon140.033
Lactuca sativa L. (HUMPOM637)خس/LettuceKidney inflammation, polycystic kidney diseaself/mac/oralSpoon10.002
Artemisia arborescens (Vaill.) L. (HUMPOM638)الشيبة/Tree wormwoodKidney stones, renal colic, renal detoxification, diuretic, renal colic, pyelonephritis, polycystic kidney diseaself/dec, inf, mac/oralTeapot, glass60.014
Artemisia campestris L. (HUMPOM705)ألاال/Wormwood sagewortKidney stoneslf/dec/oralSpoon10.002
Brocchia cinerea (Delile) Vis. (HUMPOM706)قرطوفة/-Kidney stoneslf/mac/oralSpoon10.002
Cichorium intybus L. * (HUMPOM707)بوعكاد/Common chicoryDiureticrt/dec/oralSpoon10.002
Cynara cardunculus L. (HUMPOM709)الخرشف/CardoonPyelonephritisrt/pow/oralHandful10.002
Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter * (HUMPOM708)مكرمان/False yellowheadKidney stones, pyelonephritiswp/dec/oralHandful10.002
Glebionis coronaria (L.) Cass. ex Spach * (HUMPOM710)رجل لفلوس/Garland chrysanthemumKidney stoneswp/inf/oralHandful10.002
Rhaponticum acaule (L.) DC. (HUMPOM712)التابغة/Maral rootRenal detoxification, renal painrt/dec/oralGlass10.002
Scorzonera undulata Vahl (HUMPOM711)التالمة/Viper’s grassRenal detoxificationrt/dec/oralSpoon10.002
Taraxacum campylodes G.E.Haglund * (HUMPOM639)الهندباء/Common dandelionRenal detoxification, kidney stones, kidney inflammation, pyelonephritis, diureticwp, lf, se/inf, dec/oralSpoon, teapot, glass130.030
Tanacetum cinerariifolium (Trevir.) Sch.Bip (HUMPOM713)عود العطاس/PyrethrumKidney stonesst/inf/oralSpoon10.002
Berberis vulgaris subsp. australis (Boiss.) Heywood * (HUMPOM714)

إرغيس/Common barberry

Kidney stones



Borago officinalis L * (HUMPOM715)





Brassica napus L. (HUMPOM640)

الفت/Annual rape




Brassica oleracea L. (HUMPOM641)لكروم/Wild cabbageRenal painlf/dec/oralHandful10.002
Lepidium sativum L. (HUMPOM642)حب الرشاد/Common cressUrine retentionse/dec/oralSpoon10.002
Boswellia ameero Balf.f. (HUMPOM716)

لبان ذكر/
Socotra Frankincense Tree




Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (HUMPOM717)

Prickly Pear

Diuretic, kidney stones

fl, lf, fr/dec, mac/oral


Ceratonia siliqua L. (HUMPOM118)

الخروب, تسلغو/

Renal insufficiency, renal colic, kidney stones

fr/dec, pow/oral
Spoon, handful


Corrigiola litoralis subsp. telephiifolia (Pourr.) Briq. * (HUMPOM719)






Herniaria hirsuta L. * (HUMPOM730)

هراسة لحجر/Hairy rupturewort

Kidney stones, renal colic, pyelonephritis, renal pain, diuretic, renal detoxification, polycystic kidney disease

wp, ap, st, lf/inf, dec/oral
Handful, Spoon, teapot, glass

Convolvulus althaeoides L. * (HUMPOM720)

اللواية/Mallow bindweed

Kidney stones, polycystic kidney disease



Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai (HUMPOM643)

الدلاح, الدليع/Watermelon

Urine retention, renal colic, renal detoxification, renal insufficiency, polycystic kidney disease

ba, fr/inf, jui, dec/oral
Spoon, glass


Bryonia cretica subsp. dioica (Jacq.) Tutin (HUMPOM644)عنب الديب/BryonyKidney inflammationfr/dec/oralGlass10.002
Cucumis melo L. (HUMPOM645)بتيخ/HoneydewRenal painfr/eat/oral-10.002
Cucumis sativus L. (HUMPOM646)خيار/CucumberRenal painfr/jui/oralGlass10.002
Cucurbita pepo L. (HUMPOM647)الكارعة/PumpkinKidney stones, urine retention, renal pain, diureticse, lf/inf, dec/oralSpoon60.014
Juniperus oxycedrus L. * (HUMPOM721)

تيغا/Prickly juniper

Kidney stones, renal colic



Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast. * (HUMPOM722)العرعار/Arar treeRenal colic, kidney stones, diureticlf/dec/oralSpoon, handful 30.007
Equisetum arvense L. (HUMPOM746)

عشبةذيلالحصان/Field horsetail

Renal colic, kidney stones

ap/dec, inf/oral


Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton (HUMPOM747)

التوت البري/Cranberry

Kidney stones, renal insufficiency, diuretic

fr/mac, dec/oral




Arbutus unedo L. * (HUMPOM748)ساسنو/Strawberry treeRenal pain, diuretic, renal colic, polycystic kidney diseasert, lf/dec/oralSpoon, handful50.012
Euphorbia retusa Forssk (HUMPOM723)


Kidney stones



Anagyris foetida L. * (HUMPOM648)

فول الكلب/Stinking bean trefoil

Kidney stones



Arachis hypogaea L. (HUMPOM649)القاوقاو/PeanutUrine retentionba, se/dec, mec/oralHandful20.005
Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (HUMPOM650)عرق السوس/LecoriceRenal colic, diuretic, renal painrt, st/inf, dec, mac/oralTeapot70.017
Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (HUMPOM725)الحلبة/Spice fenugreekImproved kidney performance, renal pain, diureticse/inf, dec, mac/oralSpoon40.010
Vicia faba L. (HUMPOM724) الفول/Broad beanRenal painse/dec/oralHandful10.002
Quercus suber L. * (HUMPOM651)

الدباغ/Cork oak

Kidney stones

lf, ba/dec/oral


Centaurium erythraea Rafn * (HUMPOM726)

كوزة الحية/Common centaury

Renal pain



Globularia alypum L. * (HUMPOM728)

تسلغا/Alypo globe daisy

Kidney stones, pyelonephritis

Spoon, handful


Drimia maritima (L.) Stearn * (HUMPOM729)

بصلة لخلا/Maritime squill

Diuretic, kidney stones, urine retention

bu/inf, dec, mac/oral


Crocus sativus L. (HUMPOM652)


Kidney stones, diuretic, renal colic, kidney inflammation, polycystic kidney disease

ap, sta/pow, dec, inf/oral


Juncus acutus L. * (HUMPOM731)

سمار، أزلاف/Spiny rush




Ajuga iva (L.) Schreb. * (HUMPOM653)

شندكورة/Southern bugle

Renal detoxification, kidney stones

ap/dec, inf/oral


Clinopodium nepetasubsp. glandulosum (Req.) Govaerts * (HUMPOM654)مانتة/Lesser calamintRenal colic, diureticlf, st, ap/oin, mac, dec, inf/mas, oralHandful, teapot70.017
Lavandula dentata L. * (HUMPOM655)الخزامة/French lavenderKidney swelling, urine retention, renal detoxificationlf, wp, fl/dec, inf/oralSpoon70.017
Mentha pulegium L. * (HUMPOM656)فليو/PennyroyalRenal colic, kidney stoneswp, ap/dec, inf/oralTeapot20.005
Mentha spicata L. (HUMPOM657)نعناع/MintRenal painlf/dec/oralTeapot10.002
Mentha suaveolens Ehrh. * (HUMPOM658)تمرصاد/Bigleaf mintKidney inflammationlf/pow/oralSpoon10.002
Ocimum basilicum L. (HUMPOM659)لحبق/Sweet basilRenal painlf/inf/oralSpoon10.002
Origanum compactum Benth. * (HUMPOM660)الزعتر/OreganoRenal colic, kidney swelling, urine retention, pyelonephritis, renal pain, polycystic kidney diseaself, ap/inf, dec, tis/oralSpoon, teapot50.012
Origanummajorana L. (HUMPOM661)البرددوش/Sweet marjoramRenal colic, renal pain, urine retention, pyelonephritislf/inf, dec/oralHandful20.005
Rosmarinus officinalis L. * (HUMPOM662)أزير/Rosemary Kidney stones, kidney inflammation, renal detoxification, urine retention, renal colic, diuretic, renal pain, polycystic kidney diseaself, ap/inf, dec/oralTeapot100.024
Salvia officinalis L. (HUMPOM663)السالمية/SageKidney stones, diuretic, renal colicap, lf/inf, dec/oralHandful, spoon70.017
Thymus saturejoides Coss. * (HUMPOM664)أزوكني/ThymeKidney inflammationlf/inf, dec/oralHandful10.002
Laurus nobilis L. * (HUMPOM732)

ورقسيدناموسى/Bay tree

Renal colic, kidney stones

lf/dec, inf/oral


Cinnamomum cassia (L.) J.Presl (HUMPOM733)القرفة/Chinese cassiaKidney stonesba/pow/oralSpoon30.007
Linum usitatissimum L. (HUMPOM734)

زريعة الكتان/Flaxseed

Renal diseases, diuretic



Lawsonia inermis L. (HUMPOM665)

الحنى/Mignonette tree

Kidney stone



Morus alba L. (HUMPOM735)

التوت/White mulberry

Renal colic, diuretic, renal detoxification

lf, fr/mac, dec, inf/oral


Myrtus communis L. (HUMPOM666)

الريحان/Common myrtle

Renal detoxification, pyelonephritis



Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (HUMPOM667)الكاليتوس/Tasmanian blue gumRenal coliclf/dec/oralHandful, teapot40.010
Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. and L.M.Perry (HUMPOM668)القرنفل/CloveRenal insufficiency, renal colic, renal painap, lf/dec, inf/oralSpoon40.010
Fraxinus excelsior L. (HUMPOM737)

لسان طير/Common ash

Kidney stones, pyelonephritis, polycystic kidney disease

Handful, spoon


Olea europaea L. (HUMPOM736)الزيتون/OliveRenal detoxification, kidney stones, diureticlf, fr/dec, oil/oralSpoon (oil), handful30.007
Papaver rhoeas L. * (HUMPOM669)

بنعمان/Common poppy

Kidney stones, kidney inflammation, pyelonephritis



Piper cubeba L. f. (HUMPOM670)

كبابة/Cubeb pepper

Pyelonephritis, polycystic kidney disease



Globularia repens Lam. (HUMPOM671)

عين لرنب/Creeping globe daisy

Renal insufficiency, kidney stones, urine retention



Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br. (HUMPOM738)

إيلان/Yellow bristlegrass

Renal pain, polycystic kidney disease, pyelonephritis



Avena sativa L. (HUMPOM741)الخرطال/Common oatDiuretic, renal painse/dec/oralHandful10.002
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. * (HUMPOM740)عروق النجم/Bermuda grassKidney stones, renal pain, diureticrt, lf/dec, mac, inf/oralHandful30.007
Hordeum vulgare L. (HUMPOM739)شعير/BarleyDiuretic, kidney stonesfr, se/dec, mac/oralHandful20.005
Zea mays L. (HUMPOM742)الذرة/MaizeKidney stones, kidney swelling, renal insufficiency, renal pain, diuretic, kidney inflammation, polycystic kidney diseasefr, fl/dec, inf/oralHandful220.052
Rumex vesicarius L. (HUMPOM672)

حميضة/Ruby dock

Renal detoxification, kidney stones

ap, lf/dec, inf/oral


Punica granatum L. (HUMPOM743)


Renal detoxification, renal colic, kidney stones,
renal pain, pyelonephritis

ba, fr/dec, pow/oral


Nigella sativa L. (HUMPOM744)

السانوج, حبةالكحلة/Black caraway

Detoxification of the kidneys, diuretic

se/dec, inf, oil/oral


Ziziphus jujuba Mill. (HUMPOM673)

زفيزف/Lotus jujube

Renal detoxification, pyelonephritis



Ziziphus lotus (L.) Lam. (HUMPOM674)السدرة، النبق/Lotus treeUrine retention, diuretic, renal colic, kidney stones, pyelonephritis, polycystic kidney diseasert, fr, lf/dec, inf, pow/oralHandful, spoon350.083
Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. (HUMPOM675)

التفاح/Common apple

Kidney swelling, renal colic, kidney stones

fr/inf, eat/oral


Prunus cerasus L. (HUMPOM677)حب لملوك/Sour cherryRenal colic, renal pain, diuretic, kidney stonestw, fr/dec/oralHandful30.007
Rosa canina L. * (HUMPOM676)الورد البلدي/Common briarDiuretic, pyelonephritislf/mac/oralHandful10.002
Rubia peregrina L. (HUMPOM678)

الفوة/Common wild madder

Renal pain, kidney stones, diuretic

lf, ap/dec, inf/oral


Citrus × aurantium L. (HUMPOM690)


Kidney stones, renal pain



Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck (HUMPOM691)اليم/LemonKidney stones, renal insufficiency, renal detoxification,bu, fr/jui, inf/oralGlass60.014
Citrus saliaefolius L (HUMPOM688)وظمي/Sage-leaved rock-roseRenal detoxificationrt/dec/oralHandful10.002
Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (HUMPOM689)الليمون/Sweet orangeRenal colic, renal insufficiency, kidney stonesfr/jui, inf/oralGlass60.014
Ruta montana (L.) L. * (HUMPOM687)أورمي/RueKidney stones, polycystic kidney diseaself/inf/oralSpoon10.002
Capsicum annuum L. (HUMPOM679)

الحار/Capsicum pepper


fr/dec, pow/oral




Thymelaea microphylla Meisn. * (HUMPOM680)


Diuretic, renal colic, kidney stones, pyelonephritis

lf, ap/dec, mac/oral

Handful, teapot



Tilia sylvestris Desf (HUMPOM681)

زيزفون/Small-leaved linden

Kidney stones, renal detoxification

ap, lf/dec/oral




Urtica dioica L. * (HUMPOM682)

الحريكة الملساء/Common nettle

Urine retention, kidney stones, diuretic, renal insufficiency, renal pain, kidney swelling, pyelonephritis, renal colic, kidney inflammation

st, ap, wp, lf/dec, pow, inf/oral




Aloysia citriodora Palau (HUMPOM683)

اللويزة/Lemon verbena

Diuretic, pyelonephritis

lf/dec, inf/oral




Vitis vinifera L. (HUMPOM684)

الدالية/Wine grape

Renal detoxification, diuretic, pyelonephritis





Curcuma longa L. (HUMPOM685)


Renal detoxification, renal colic, kidney stones

rh/pow, dec, inf/oral




Zingiber officinale Roscoe (HUMPOM686)الزنجبيل,سكينجبير/GingerKidney swelling, kidney stones, renal detoxification, detoxification of the kidneys, kidney inflammation, renal pain, diuretic, polycystic kidney diseaserh, rt/pow, dec, inf/oralSpoon, pinch190.045
Abbreviation: parts used: bu: bulb; st: stem; fr: fruit; wp: whole plant; ap: aerial part; lf: leaf; rt: root; rh: rhizome; se: seeds; tw: twigs; fl: flowers; ba: bark; sta: stamen. Mode of preparation: juice: jui; decoction: dec; infusion: inf; maceration: mac; powder: pow; tisane: tis; ointment: oin; massage: mas; UV: Use Value. FUV: Family Use Value. UR: Use reports. *: Endemic.
Table 4. Pharmacological data of the medicinal species cited by local people to treat kidney diseases.
Table 4. Pharmacological data of the medicinal species cited by local people to treat kidney diseases.
Scientific NameUsed PartsUsed ExtractsExperimental ModelPharmacological UsesTherapeutic DosesReferences
Ajuga iva (L.) Schreb. Whole plantAqueous extractRatsBeneficial for correcting the hyperglycemia and preventing diabetic complications in liver, pancreas and kidneys50 mg/kg of body weight daily for 3 weeks[38]
Allium sativum L.BulbsAqueous extractRatsModulatory effects on renal oxidative stress and nitric oxide production in streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy in rats200–400 mg/kg of body weight for 30 consecutive days[39]
BulbsAqueous extractRatsModulates the expression of angiotensin II AT2 receptor in adrenal and renal tissues of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats500 mg/kg of body weight 8 weeks after diabetes induction[40]
BulbsAqueous extractRatsProtects hepatic and renal toxicity of alloxan in rats100–200 mg/kg of body weight/day; given by oral gavage for 21 days[41]
BulbsEthanol extractRatsAmeliorative effects on renal parenchyma of gentamicin-induced nephropathic rats200 mg/kg of body weight for 10 days[42]
Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f.LeavesLeaf pulp extractRatsProtective effect on mild damage caused by type II diabetic on kidney tissue500 mg/kg of body weight[43]
LeavesEthanol extractRatsProtective role on liver and kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats300 mg/kg of body weight for 30 days[44]
LeavesEthanol extractRatsAntinephropathy effect on PKC-β level of rat kidney in diabetes mellitus30–120 mg/kg of body weight[45]
Ammi visnaga (L.) Lam.FruitsAqueous extractLLC-PK1and Madin-Darby-canine
kidney (MDCK) cells
Prevent cell damage caused by oxalate in renal epithelial cells(100 µg/mL)[46]
FruitsAqueous extractRatsPrevention of renal crystal deposition125–500 mg/kg of body weight for 14 days[47]
Apium graveolens L. Aerial partsFresh celeryRabbitsAccentuates urinary Ca+2 excretions in
experimental model of nephrocalcinosis
8 g/kg added to the
animal food
Stem, leavesEthanolic extractRatsProtective effect on kidney damage in ischemia/reperfusion injury rats model250–1000 mg/kg of body weight for 14 days[49]
FruitsEssential oilDogsDiuretic effect0.004–0.008 mL/kg of body weight[50]
Arachis hypogaea L.Peanuts podsMethanol and aqueous extractsMiceNephroprotective effect on CCl4 induced
kidney damage in mice
50–100 mg/kg of body weight[51]
Arbutus unedo L.LeavesAqueous extractsRatsPrevent cardiovascular and renal hemodynamic effects in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats250 mg/kg of body weight/day[52]
Artemisia arborescens (Vaill.) L.LeavesHydroalcoholic extractRatsNephroprotective effects against oestroprogestative-induced kidney damages in rats200 mg/kg body weight during 6 weeks[53]
Artemisia campestris L.Aerial partsEssential oilRatsProtective effect on Deltamethrin induced oxidative stress in kidney and brain of rats200 mg/kg of body weight for two weeks[54]
Avena sativa L.SeedsPowderHumanBeneficial effect on serum albumin and serum potassium in patients with CKD50 g of oat flour per day for 8 weeks[55]
SeedsSeeds prepared with food pellets and distilled water to get a cohesive pasteMiceProtective effects of against oxidative stress-induced kidney damage resulting from an estrogen deficiency in ovariectomized swiss mice model200 mg/kg of body weight[56]
Berberis vulgaris subsp. australis (Boiss.) HeywoodBarkEthanolic extractRatsAmeliorative effects on lipid profile, kidney and liver function in experimental dyslipidemia300–500 mg/kg of body weight for eight weeks[57]
Brassica oleracea L.Broccoli sproutsJuiceRatsProtective effects toward renal damage in high-salt-fed SHRSP: role of AMPK/PPARa/UCP2 axis340 mL/120 mg in diet[58]
Ceratonia siliqua L. Pulp and seedsAqueous extractRatsProtective effect against a dextran sulfate sodium-induced alteration in liver and kidney in rat50 and 100 mg/kg of body weight for 21 days[59]
LeavesEthyl acetate fractionRatsAmeliorative effects against CCl4 induced hepatic oxidative damage and renal failure in rats250 mg/kg of body weight for 8 days[60]
Cichorium intybus L. SeedsAqueous extractRatsImproving effect on renal parameters in experimentally induced early and late diabetes type 2 in rats125 mg/kg of body weight for 21 days[61]
Aerial partsEthanol extractRatsAgainst cisplatin induced renal toxicity500 mg/kg of body weight for 10 consecutive days[62]
FlowersAqueous extractRatsPreventive effects on ethylene glycol-induced renal calculi in rats50–200 mg/kg of body weight for 30 days[63]
RootsAqueous extractRatsImproving effects on serum oxidative stress, liver and kidney volume, and cyclin B1 and Bcl-2 levels in the brains of rats with ethanol induced damage200 mg/kg of body weight for 18 days[64]
RootsUnspecifiedRatsAmeliorates hydroxyapatite nanoparticles induced kidney damage in rats20 and 300 mg/kg of body weight for 4 weeks[65]
Cinnamomum cassia (L.) J.PreslBarkMethanol extractRatsAmeliorative effect against Ni-NPs-induced liver and kidney damage in male Sprague Dawley rats175–225 mg/kg of body weight[66]
Citrus sinensis (L.) OsbeckLeavesEssential oilRatsAmeliorative effect on some liver and kidney function indices of diabetic rats110 mg/Kg of body weight for 15 days[67]
StemsAqueous and methanolic
Human Embryonic Kidney Carcinoma (HEK) cell lineAnti-proliferative or cytopathic potential effects against human embryonic kidney carcinoma cell lineIC50 at 32-fold dilution of the extract[68]
Coriandrum sativum L.SeedsAqueous and ethanol extractsMicesProtective role against lead nitrate induced oxidative stress and tissue damage in the liver and kidney in mal miceWE (300 and 600 mg/kg of body weight), EtOH (250 and 500 mg/kg of body weight)[69]
Crocus sativus L.UnspecifiedAqueous extractCatsIncrease the glomerular filtration rate and shortened the emptying half-time of radiopharmaceutical90 mg/kg body weight[70]
Saffron threadsAqueous extractRatsProtect the kidney and liver of diabetic rats against damage caused by hyperglycemia-induced inflammation, due to its anti-inflammatory potential200 mg/kg of body weight[71]
PetalsHydroalcoholic extractRatsBeneficial for the kidneys200–600 mg/kg of body weight/day[72]
PetalsHydroalcoholic extractRatsProtects the kidney167.5 and 335 mg/kg of body weight/day[73]
Cucumis melo LSeedsEthanolic extractMiceRenoprotective effects in gentamicin-induced renal damage250–500 mg/kg of body weight for 8 days[74]
LeavesEthanol extractRatsPotential and effective role in inhibiting inflammation and oxidative stress in the kidney of diabetic rats30–120 mg/kg of body weight for 30 consecutive days[75]
Cucumis sativus L.PulpEthanol extractRatsAmeliorative effect on alloxan-induced kidney toxicity in male adult Wistar rats100–500 mg/kg of body weight for 28 days[76]
Cucurbita pepo L.SeedsMethanol extractRatsAntiurolithic against sodium oxalate-induced renal calculiIn vivo (250–1000 mg/kg of body weight), in vitro (20–80 mg/mL)[77]
Curcuma longa L.RhizomesEthanol extractRatsEffect on antioxidant enzymes in kidney of alloxan induced type-1 diabetic male rats250 mg/kg of body weight[78]
RhizomesHydro-alcoholic extractRatsProtective effect on adriamycin-induced oxidative stress in kidney rat1000 mg/kg of body weight[79]
RhizomesEthanol extractChickensEffect on biochemical and pathological parameters of liver and kidney in chicken aflatoxicosis5 mg mixed with 1 kg of diet[80]
RhizomesPolyphenol extractRatsEffect on doxorubicin-induced kidney injury in rats5 mg mixed with 1 g of died[81]
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.Whole plantAqueous extractRatsAgainst kidney stones12.5, 50 and 200 mg/kg of body weight[82]
Daucus carota L.SeedsMethanol extractRatsAntihyperlipidemic properties et protective effect on liver and kidney function in diabetic rats100–300 mg/kg of body weight for 6 days using gavage)[83]
RootsPetroleum ether and methanol extractRatsProtective and curative potential on renal ischemia reperfusion injury in rats250–500 mg/kg of body weight for 14 days[84]
Carrot tuberAqueous extractRatsHepatoprotective, hepatocurative and nephro-curative properties and could be explored in nutrition and health300 mg/kg of body weight for 6 weeks[85]
Eucalyptus globulus Labill.LeavesMethanol extractMiceHepato–renal protective potential againstCyclophosphamide induced toxicity in mice50–100 mg/kg of body weight for 15 days[86]
LeavesAqueous-ethanol extractsRatsProtective effect against acetaminophen-induced kidney damages in male rat130 mg /kg of body weight/day; for 42 days[87]
Foeniculum vulgare Mill.FruitsAqueous extractRatsInhibition of calcium oxalate renal crystals formation in rats4 mL/100 g body weight for 4 weeks[88]
SeedsAqueous extractRatsProtect liver, kidney and gonadal functionsagainst cadmium intoxication150 mg/kg diet[89]
SeedsAqueous extractRatsEffect on the kidney in experimental polycystic ovary syndrome female rats150 mg/kg body weight for 4 weeks[90]
Globularia alypum L.Aerial partsAqueous extractRatsDecreases hypertriglyceridemia and ameliorates oxidative status of the muscle, kidney, and heart in rats fed a high-fructose diet0.5% in diet[91]
Whole plantChloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous extractsMiceProtective effect against oxonate-induced hyperuricemia and renal dysfunction in mice100 mg/kg of body weight[92]
Glycyrrhiza glabra L.RootsPowderRatsMetabolic effects on lipid distribution pattern, liver and renal functions of albino rats5–10% of Powder in diet[93]
RootsAqueous extractRatsEffect of licorice on adrenal-kidney pituitary axis in rats100–500 mg/kg of body weight for 15 consecutive days[94]
Helianthus annuus L.RootsPetroleum ether extractRatsAmeliorative potential on hepatoprotective and some kidney function indices of alloxan induced diabetic rats100–300 mg/kg of body weight for three weeks[95]
Herniaria hirsuta L.Aerial partsHydro-ethanolic and aqueous extractsOxalo-calcic and cystine stones of patientsDissolution of oxalo-calcic and cystine stones0.5% of plant extracts
in physiological solution (9 g of NaCl /L)
Aerial partsAqueous extractHuman urine samplesPromoted the precipitation of calcium oxalate particles in urine0.0625–1 mg/mL[97]
Aerial partsAqueous extractRatsAgainst calcium oxalate stones induced by ethylene glycol and ammonium chlorideFinal concentration was 50 mg/mL (rats received 1 mL/day of extract for 14 days)[98]
Aerial partsAqueous extractRatsAgainst calcium oxalate urolithiasis risk in ratsThe water supply was replaced with an infusion of 4 g/L of plant for 7 days[99]
Aerial partsAqueous extractRenal epithelial cells of the Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) lineAgainst adhesion of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals to cultured renal cells200 to 800 µg/mL[100]
Aerial partsAqueous extractpatientsAgainst cystine stones in different patients with congenital cystinuriaPlacing calculations and fragments of calculations cystine in the presence of 20 mL of extract plant for 8 weeks[101]
Hordeum vulgare L.SeedsAqueous and alcoholic seed extractsRatsAgainst ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride-induced urolithasis in rats200–300 mg/kg of body weight for 35 days[102]
Lactuca sativa L.Aerial partsEssential oilRabbitsBeneficial effect for the functions and histology of the kidneys0.1–0.2 mL/kg
orally for 17 days
Lawsonia inermis L.LeavesEthanol extractRatsDecreased blood glucose level and was able to restore the kidney destruction of alloxan-induced diabetic rats400–600 mg/kg of body weight for 28 days[104]
Lepidium sativum L.SeedsAqueous extractRatsProtective effect against aluminum-induced liver and kidney effects in albino rat20 mg/kg of body weight for 8 weeks[105]
SeedsAqueous extractRatsEffect on renal glucose reabsorption and urinary TGF-β1 levels in diabetic rats20 mg/kg of body weight [106]
Linum usitatissimum L.SeedsEthanolic extractRatsRenoprotective effect through hemodynamic changes and conservation of antioxidant enzymes in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg
for 4 weeks
SeedsAqueous and methanolic extractRatsIncreased serum estradiol, progesterone, total proteins, total cholesterol, ALT and AST activity, and decreased ovarian cholesterol levels, while it had no effect on kidney function in immature female rats500 mg/kg daily for 14 days[108]
UnspecifiedEssential oilRatsAmeliorative effects on roundup-induced biochemical and histopathological changes in the liver and kidney of rats0.5 g/kg of body weight[109]
Morus alba L.LeavesMethanol extractMiceAntioxidant effect on kidney, testes, spleen and intestine of mice200–800 mg/kg of body weight for 10 days[110]
LeavesAqueous extractRatsAmeliorative effect against diabetes-induced changes in kidney1 g/100 g of diet[111]
LeavesAcetone extractRatsAmeliorative effect on urine creatinine levels and histology of diabetic rat kidney90–150 mg/Kg of body weight for 14 days[112]
LeavesMethanol extractMiceAmeliorative effect against Schistosoma mansoni-induced renal and testicular injuries in mice200–800 mg/kg of body weight/day for 10 days[113]
Nigella sativa L.Whole plantEssential oilRabbitsAgainst oxytetracycline-induced hepato-renal toxicity in rabbits2 mL/kg of body weight[114]
SeedsAqueous and ethanol extractsRatsProtective effect on renal ischemia-reperfusion-induced oxidative damage in rats0.7, 1 and 1.6 g/kg of body weight[115]
SeedsEthanol extractRatsNephroprotective effect in cisplatin-induced renal injury50 mg/kg of body weight[116]
SeedsAqueous extractRatsSignificantly prevented renal ischemia/reperfusion induced functional and histological injuries1 g/kg of body weight[117]
SeedsEthanol extractRatsProtective effect against cisplatin-induced renal toxicity and oxidative stress in wistar rats100–200 mg/kg of body weight for 5 days[118]
Ocimum basilicum L.Aerial partsHydroalcoholic extractRatsAgainst cisplatin models of acute renal failure100–500 mg/kg of body weight[119]
Aerial partsEssential oilsRatsRenoprotective effect against diabetes induced renal affection in albino rats500 mg/kg of body weight/day; given to rats through gastric tube for six weeks)[120]
LeavesEthanolic extractRatsHepato-renal protective against paracetamol toxicity in rat model200–400 mg/kg of body weight; once daily for 30 consecutive days)[121]
Aerial partsHydroalcoholic extractRatsDecreased cell injury and apoptosis and preventive effect in kidney tissue damages produced by exposure to electromagnetic field in rats 1.5g/kg of body weight for 40 consequence day[122]
Olea europaea L.LeavesEthanol extract (oleuropein)RatsImprovement of blood pressure and cardiac performances, but tends to retain elevated vascular resistance, therefore, reducing the inflow of blood into the brain and kidneys of the spontaneously hypertensive rats25–50 mg/kg of body weight[123]
LeavesEthanol extractHuman rhabdmyosarcom cells (RD) (line CCL-136)Antitumoral activity and the cytotoxicity on renal cellsIC50 (75.6 μg/mL)[124]
LeavesUnspecifiedRatsProtective effect against oxidative stress injury generated with renal ischemia reperfusion100–200 mg/kg of body weight for 15 days[125]
LeavesEthanol extractRatsUp-regulates Nrf2/ARE/HO-1 signaling and attenuates cyclophosphamide-induced oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in rat kidney100–200 mg/kg of body weight for 15 days[126]
LeavesEssential oilRatsBenificial effects on the adrenal-kidney-pituitary axis in rats100–500 μg/kg of body weight for 14 consecutive days[127]
Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.CladodesAqueous extractRatsDiuretic effect on rats, and the lyophilized extract has a diuretic and hypotensive effect on normotensive rabbits without deterioration in renal function test100 mg/kg of body weight[128]
CladodesAqueous extractRatsNephroprotective effect on sodium dichromate-induced kidney injury in rats100 mg/kg of body weight for 40 days[129]
FruitsPrickly pear juiceRatsAlleviates ethanol-induced kidney injury in rats20 and 40 mL/kg of body weight[130]
Origanum majorana L.Whole plantEssential oilRatsProtective effect on hepatic and renal toxicities induced by nickel chloride in male albino rats0.5 mL/kg of body weight for 4 weeks[131]
Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) FussFruitsFresh celeryWomen and men urineEffect on urinary apigenin excretion in human subjects20 g parsley/10 mL/days[132]
Leaves and stemsEthanolic extractRatsProtective effects on ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury100–200 mg/kg of body weight[133]
SeedsEthanolic extractRatsProtective effect on histopathological changes in kidney induced by sodium valproate in male rats200 mg/kg of body weight/day for 7 weeks[134]
LeavesParsley juiceMiceImproving effect against cadmium induces changes in lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and catalase activity in kidneys of male albino mice0.1 mL of parsley juice/days[135]
LeavesAqueous extractRatsAttenuates serum uric acid level and improves liver and kidney structures in oxonate-induced hyperuricemia rats3.5–10.5 g/kg of body weight/day[136]
Pimpinella anisum L.UnspecifiedEssential oilRatsDecreased the toxicity of aspartame-induced hepatorenal toxicity0.5 mL/kg of body weight/day; for 2 months[137]
Pistacia lentiscus L.FruitsEssential oilRabbitsSafe with no adverse effect on liver functions and renal functions with possible anti-glycogenesis activity1 mL/kg of body weight for 6 consecutive weeks[138]
Punica granatum L.FruitsJuice and methanol extractRatsAntioxidant properties of pomegranate in hepatic and renal tissues of ratsJuice (3 mL/kg body weight; for 21 days), MtOH (200 mg/kg; body weight; for 21 days)[139]
FruitsJuiceRatsReduces lead-induced cell damage in kidney, liver and heart tissue30–60 μL/days for 5 weeks[140]
SeedsJuiceRatsImproving effect on diabetes-induced changes in kidney7.5% of pomegranate seeds in an AIN-76 diet, for a period of two months.[111]
Seeds, fruits and peelPeel MtOH, SOE, fruit juicesRatsEffects on apoptosis in rat kidney induced by diethylnitrosamine and phenobarbitalPeel MtOH (250 mg/kg; body weight), Fruits juice (250 mg/kg; body weight), SOE (2 mL/kg; body weight)[141]
FruitsPomegranate juice and methanolic extract of peelMiceImproving effect on steroid induced proximal and distal tubular dilatation in mice kidneyJuice (3mL/kg of body weight, for 8 weeks), MtOH peel extract (200 mg/kg of body weight, for 8 weeks)[142]
flowersHydroalcoholic extractRatsAgainst glycerol-induced acute renal failure in rats125 and 250 mg/kg of body weight twice daily for 3 days[143]
Rosa canina L.FruitEthanolic extractRatsProtective effects on renal disturbances induced by reperfusion injury in rats2700 mg/kg of body weight in 3 mL volume through gavage for 7 days[144]
Rosmarinus officinalis L.unspecifiedTosemary extract containing 40% carnosic acidratsProtective effect against etoposide-induced changes in liver and kidney functions, and DNA damage in rats220 mg/kg of body weight /twice weekly[145]
LeavesEssential oilMiceAmeliorants effect on histology and biological parameters of liver and kidney100–400 mL[146]
LeavesAqueous extractRatsImproving effect on kidney and liver of diabetic rats0.2 mg/mL/day for 30 days[147]
Salvia officinalis L.LeavesAqueous extractMiceEffects on development of mice embryos kidney and some hormonal effect of treated mothers83.9, 167.8 mg/kg; body weight for 6 weeks[148] (p. 42)
LeavesEssential oilMiceProtective effects against hyperlipidemia, liver, and kidney injuries in mice submitted to a high-fat diet4 mg/kg body weight for 8 weeks[149]
LeavesEthanol extractRatsPreventive effects on chlorpyrifos-and methomyl-induced renal toxicity and oxidative stress in albino rats50 mg/kg body weight for 4 weeks[150]
LeavesEssential oilMiceProtective role against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver and kidney damage in mice0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mL/kg body weight for 2 weeks[151]
Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. and L.M.PerryCloveClove oilRatsProtective role against acrylamide induced oxidative damage and impairment of liver, kidney, and testicular functions in albino rats100 and 200 mg/kg of body weight for 21 consecutive days[152]
Trigonella foenum-graecum L.SeedsAqueous extractRatsProtective effect on kidney function and morphology in diabetic rats via its antioxidant activity440–1740 mg/kg of body weight for 6 weeks[153]
SeedsEthanol extractRatsProtective effect against carbon tetrachloride-induced toxicity in liver and kidney of male rat10% in pellet rat feed
for 7 weeks
SeedsPowderRatsAgainst ethylene glycol-induced kidney stone in rats10 g of fenugreek in
100 mL of water and 10 g
in 100 g of standard diet
SeedsAqueous extractRatsAttenuated radiation-induced oxidative stress in liver and kidney tissues1 g/kg of body weight during 7 days before irradiation[156]
Urtica dioica L.LeavesAqueous extractRatsEffects on the expression level of cyclooxygenase-2 and caspase-3 in the liver and kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats100 mg/kg of body weight/daily[157]
LeavesMethanolic extractRatsAmeliorative effect on acute kidney injury induced by gentamicin in rats200 mg/kg of body weight/day[158]
LeavesAqueous extractRatsEffects on some blood and urine parameters,
and liver and kidney histology in diabetic rats
0.5% infusion of the leaves[159]
Vitis vinifera L.Grape seedsAqueous extractMiceProtective role in some biochemical parameters and histological changes in methionine for liver, kidney and heart in mice (Mus musculus)10–30% mg/kg of body weight during 30 days[160]
Zea mays L.StigmataAqueous extractRatsAntilithiatic effectsThe water supply was replaced with an infusion of 2g/L of plant for 7 days[161]
Corn silk, leavesEthanolic extractRatsImproved kidney failure in rat model induced by gentamicin75 mg/kg of body weight for 4 weeks[162]
Corn silkAqueous extractHuman urine samplesSolubility of calcium in kidney stones and diuretic effect2–10% of infuse solution[163]
Zingiber officinale RoscoeFresh gingerPowderRatsProtective effect against kidney damage in rats2.5–5.0% powder of ginger[164]
Fresh gingerAqueous extractMiceProtective effect against injury in the kidney of mice treated with CCL4500 mg/kg of body weight[165]
Fresh gingerHydro-alcoholic extractRatsEffects on treating lead-poisoned kidney of
neonatal rats.
2 g/kg of body weight[166]
RhizomesEthanol extractMiceProtective effect on acute renal failure induced by cisplatin and liver of rats exposed to carbendazim250 mg/kg of body weight[167]
RhizomesPowderRatsEffects on some physiological parameters and kidney structure in ratsRats fed with diet contain
5% ZOR Roscoe
RhizomesAqueous extractRatsAlleviate liver and kidney dysfunctions and oxidative stress induced by mercuric chloride in male rats125 mg/kg of body weight[169]
RhizomesAqueous extractRatsAmeliorative effect on the cadmium-induced liver and kidney injury in females’ rats2 g/L for 40 days[170]
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Bencheikh, N.; Elbouzidi, A.; Kharchoufa, L.; Ouassou, H.; Alami Merrouni, I.; Mechchate, H.; Es-safi, I.; Hano, C.; Addi, M.; Bouhrim, M.; et al. Inventory of Medicinal Plants Used Traditionally to Manage Kidney Diseases in North-Eastern Morocco: Ethnobotanical Fieldwork and Pharmacological Evidence. Plants 2021, 10, 1966.

AMA Style

Bencheikh N, Elbouzidi A, Kharchoufa L, Ouassou H, Alami Merrouni I, Mechchate H, Es-safi I, Hano C, Addi M, Bouhrim M, et al. Inventory of Medicinal Plants Used Traditionally to Manage Kidney Diseases in North-Eastern Morocco: Ethnobotanical Fieldwork and Pharmacological Evidence. Plants. 2021; 10(9):1966.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bencheikh, Noureddine, Amine Elbouzidi, Loubna Kharchoufa, Hayat Ouassou, Ilyass Alami Merrouni, Hamza Mechchate, Imane Es-safi, Christophe Hano, Mohamed Addi, Mohamed Bouhrim, and et al. 2021. "Inventory of Medicinal Plants Used Traditionally to Manage Kidney Diseases in North-Eastern Morocco: Ethnobotanical Fieldwork and Pharmacological Evidence" Plants 10, no. 9: 1966.

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