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Article

Production of Phytotoxic Metabolites by Botryosphaeriaceae in Naturally Infected and Artificially Inoculated Grapevines

1
National Wine and Grape Industry Centre, School of Agricultural and Wine Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Locked Bag 588, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678, Australia
2
Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita’ di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte Sant’Angelo, Via Cintia 4, 80126 Napoli, Italy
3
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Viale Pinto 1, 71121 Foggia, Italy
4
UPLB Museum of Natural History, University of the Philippines—Los Baños, College, Laguna 4031, Philippines
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Carlos Agustí-Brisach
Plants 2021, 10(4), 802; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10040802
Received: 20 March 2021 / Revised: 9 April 2021 / Accepted: 12 April 2021 / Published: 19 April 2021
Grapevine trunk diseases (GTDs) are considered a serious problem to viticulture worldwide. Several GTD fungal pathogens produce phytotoxic metabolites (PMs) that were hypothesized to migrate to the foliage where they cause distinct symptoms. The role of PMs in the expression of Botryosphaeria dieback (BD) symptoms in naturally infected and artificially inoculated wood using molecular and analytical chemistry techniques was investigated. Wood samples from field vines naturally infected with BD and one-year-old vines inoculated with Diplodia seriata, Spencermartinsia viticola and Dothiorella vidmadera were analysed by cultural isolations, quantitative PCR (qPCR) and targeted LC-MS/MS to detect three PMs: (R)-mellein, protocatechuic acid and spencertoxin. (R)-mellein was detected in symptomatic naturally infected wood and vines artificially inoculated with D. seriata but was absent in all non-symptomatic wood. The amount of (R)-mellein detected was correlated with the amount of pathogen DNA detected by qPCR. Protocatechuic acid and spencertoxin were absent in all inoculated wood samples. (R)-mellein may be produced by the pathogen during infection to break down the wood, however it was not translocated into other parts of the vine. The foliar symptoms previously reported in vineyards may be due to a combination of PMs produced and climatic and physiological factors that require further investigation. View Full-Text
Keywords: Vitis vinifera; Botryosphaeria dieback; foliar symptoms; (R)-mellein; qPCR; LC-MS/MS Vitis vinifera; Botryosphaeria dieback; foliar symptoms; (R)-mellein; qPCR; LC-MS/MS
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MDPI and ACS Style

Reveglia, P.; Billones-Baaijens, R.; Millera Niem, J.; Masi, M.; Cimmino, A.; Evidente, A.; Savocchia, S. Production of Phytotoxic Metabolites by Botryosphaeriaceae in Naturally Infected and Artificially Inoculated Grapevines. Plants 2021, 10, 802. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10040802

AMA Style

Reveglia P, Billones-Baaijens R, Millera Niem J, Masi M, Cimmino A, Evidente A, Savocchia S. Production of Phytotoxic Metabolites by Botryosphaeriaceae in Naturally Infected and Artificially Inoculated Grapevines. Plants. 2021; 10(4):802. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10040802

Chicago/Turabian Style

Reveglia, Pierluigi; Billones-Baaijens, Regina; Millera Niem, Jennifer; Masi, Marco; Cimmino, Alessio; Evidente, Antonio; Savocchia, Sandra. 2021. "Production of Phytotoxic Metabolites by Botryosphaeriaceae in Naturally Infected and Artificially Inoculated Grapevines" Plants 10, no. 4: 802. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10040802

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