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Article

Tolerance Mechanisms of the Aromatic and Medicinal Plant Salvia sclarea L. to Excess Zinc

1
Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria
2
Department of Trace Analysis, Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, 61-614 Poznan, Poland
3
Institute of Plant Breeding and Genetic Resources, Hellenic Agricultural Organisation–Demeter, Thermi, 57001 Thessaloniki, Greece
4
Department of Botany, Faculty of Biology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 15784 Athens, Greece
5
Department of Botany, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2021, 10(2), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10020194
Received: 1 December 2020 / Revised: 16 January 2021 / Accepted: 18 January 2021 / Published: 21 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Crop and Medical Plants)
In recent years, due to the development of industrial and agricultural production, heavy metal contamination has attracted increasing attention. Aromatic and medicinal plant Salvia sclarea L. (clary sage) is classified to zinc (Zn) accumulators and considered as a potential plant for the phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils. In this study, an adaptation of clary sage to 900 µM (excess) Zn exposure for eight days in a hydroponic culture was investigated. The tolerance mechanisms under excess Zn exposure were assessed by evaluating changes in the nutrient uptake, leaf pigment and phenolic content, photosynthetic activity and leaf structural characteristics. The uptake and the distribution of Zn, as well as some essential elements such as: Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn and Cu, were examined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results revealed that Salvia sclarea is a Zn-accumulator plant that tolerates significantly high toxic levels of Zn in the leaves by increasing the leaf contents of Fe, Ca and Mn ions to protect the photosynthetic function and to stimulate the photosystem I (PSI) and photosystem II (PSII) activities. The exposure of clary sage to excess Zn significantly increased the synthesis of total phenolics and anthocyanins in the leaves; these play an important role in Zn detoxification and protection against oxidative stress. The lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage in leaves, used as clear indicators for heavy metal damage, were slightly increased. All these data highlight that Salvia sclarea is an economically interesting plant for the phytoextraction and/or phytostabilization of Zn-contaminated soils. View Full-Text
Keywords: chlorophyll fluorescence; clary sage; nutrient uptake; oxidative stress; photosynthesis; phytoremediation; phytostabilization; pigments; total phenolic content; Zn toxicity chlorophyll fluorescence; clary sage; nutrient uptake; oxidative stress; photosynthesis; phytoremediation; phytostabilization; pigments; total phenolic content; Zn toxicity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dobrikova, A.; Apostolova, E.; Hanć, A.; Yotsova, E.; Borisova, P.; Sperdouli, I.; Adamakis, I.-D.S.; Moustakas, M. Tolerance Mechanisms of the Aromatic and Medicinal Plant Salvia sclarea L. to Excess Zinc. Plants 2021, 10, 194. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10020194

AMA Style

Dobrikova A, Apostolova E, Hanć A, Yotsova E, Borisova P, Sperdouli I, Adamakis I-DS, Moustakas M. Tolerance Mechanisms of the Aromatic and Medicinal Plant Salvia sclarea L. to Excess Zinc. Plants. 2021; 10(2):194. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10020194

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dobrikova, Anelia, Emilia Apostolova, Anetta Hanć, Ekaterina Yotsova, Preslava Borisova, Ilektra Sperdouli, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S. Adamakis, and Michael Moustakas. 2021. "Tolerance Mechanisms of the Aromatic and Medicinal Plant Salvia sclarea L. to Excess Zinc" Plants 10, no. 2: 194. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10020194

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