Next Article in Journal
Biological and Clinical Significance of Mosaicism in Human Preimplantation Embryos
Next Article in Special Issue
There and Back Again: Hox Clusters Use Both DNA Strands
Previous Article in Journal
Inhibition of Cyclooxygenase-2 Alters Craniofacial Patterning during Early Embryonic Development of Chick
Review

Physical Laws Shape Up HOX Gene Collinearity

Institute of Biosciences and Applications, National Center for Scientific Research ‘Demokritos’, 153 10 Athens, Greece
Academic Editors: Samir Merabet and Simon J. Conway
J. Dev. Biol. 2021, 9(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/jdb9020017
Received: 15 March 2021 / Revised: 28 April 2021 / Accepted: 29 April 2021 / Published: 6 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hox Genes in Development: New Paradigms)
Hox gene collinearity (HGC) is a multi-scalar property of many animal phyla particularly important in embryogenesis. It relates entities and events occurring in Hox clusters inside the chromosome DNA and in embryonic tissues. These two entities differ in linear size by more than four orders of magnitude. HGC is observed as spatial collinearity (SC), where the Hox genes are located in the order (Hox1, Hox2, Hox3 …) along the 3′ to 5′ direction of DNA in the genome and a corresponding sequence of ontogenetic units (E1, E2, E3, …) located along the Anterior—Posterior axis of the embryo. Expression of Hox1 occurs in E1, Hox2 in E2, Hox3 in E3, etc. Besides SC, a temporal collinearity (TC) has been also observed in many vertebrates. According to TC, first Hox1 is expressed in E1; later, Hox2 is expressed in E2, followed by Hox3 in E3, etc. Lately, doubt has been raised about whether TC really exists. A biophysical model (BM) was formulated and tested during the last 20 years. According to BM, physical forces are created which pull the Hox genes one after the other, driving them to a transcription factory domain where they are transcribed. The existing experimental data support this BM description. Symmetry is a physical–mathematical property of matter that was explored in depth by Noether who formulated a ground-breaking theory (NT) that applies to all sizes of matter. NT may be applied to biology in order to explain the origin of HGC in animals developing not only along the A/P axis, but also to animals with circular symmetry. View Full-Text
Keywords: hox gene collinearity; spatial temporal collinearity; vertebrates; Noether theory hox gene collinearity; spatial temporal collinearity; vertebrates; Noether theory
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Papageorgiou, S. Physical Laws Shape Up HOX Gene Collinearity. J. Dev. Biol. 2021, 9, 17. https://doi.org/10.3390/jdb9020017

AMA Style

Papageorgiou S. Physical Laws Shape Up HOX Gene Collinearity. Journal of Developmental Biology. 2021; 9(2):17. https://doi.org/10.3390/jdb9020017

Chicago/Turabian Style

Papageorgiou, Spyros. 2021. "Physical Laws Shape Up HOX Gene Collinearity" Journal of Developmental Biology 9, no. 2: 17. https://doi.org/10.3390/jdb9020017

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop