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Open AccessArticle

Guessing the Riddle of a Black Hole

P. L. Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems 2 Kosygina str., 119334 Moscow, Russia
Universe 2020, 6(8), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe6080113
Received: 6 July 2020 / Revised: 30 July 2020 / Accepted: 3 August 2020 / Published: 7 August 2020
A static structure of matter, extremely compressed to the state of a Bose–Einstein condensate by its own gravitational field, is considered. Instead of the widely spread restriction detgik<0, I used a weaker condition of regularity: all invariants of gik are finite. This makes it possible to find regular static solutions to Einstein equations for a spherically symmetric distribution of matter with no restriction on total mass. In these regular static solutions, the metric component grr changes its sign twice: grr(r)=0 at r=rg and at r=rh>rg. The signature of the metric tensor is changed to (+,+,−,−) within the spherical layer rg<r<rh. Though the gravitation dominates at extremely high density, I assume that it does not violate the exchange interaction of elementary particles of the Standard Model. The found regular static solution to Einstein equations, having no limitation on mass, pretends to describe the state of a black hole to which the gravitational collapse leads. The features of a collapsed black hole, its internal composition depending on total mass and the relation with surrounding dark matter, are considered. An astrophysical application: The pressure balance at the interface between a black hole and dark matter determines the plateau velocity of a galaxy rotation curve as a function of the black hole mass. The plateau velocity is inversely proportional to the black hole mass. The speed of rotation of a star at the periphery of a galaxy is proportional to the square root of the black hole mass (direct attraction to the center) and inversely proportional to the mass of the same black hole (as the influence of dark matter). For a condensate of massive bosons in the Standard Model, the direct attraction to the black hole and the influence of dark matter are equal if the black hole mass is about M˜4.24×1037 g. In galaxies with black hole masses MM=1.989×1033 g (like UMa: NGC 3726 and UMa: NGC 3769 of the Ursa Major cluster), the motion of stars is driven by dark matter. Their rotation curves should have a well-defined plateau. On the contrary, in galaxies with black hole masses M>>M˜ (like in our Milky Way with the black hole mass M=8.6×1039 g), the motion of stars is regulated by the black hole in the center. Dark matter does not play a significant role in our Milky Way Galaxy. View Full-Text
Keywords: black hole; dark matter; Bose–Einstein condensate black hole; dark matter; Bose–Einstein condensate
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Meierovich, B.E. Guessing the Riddle of a Black Hole. Universe 2020, 6, 113.

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