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Scientia Pharmaceutica is published by MDPI from Volume 84 Issue 3 (2016). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Austrian Pharmaceutical Society (Österreichische Pharmazeutische Gesellschaft, ÖPhG).
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Sci. Pharm. 2006, 74(4), 175-188; (registering DOI)

Chitosan Beads as a New Gastroretentive System of Verapamil

Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University. P.O. Box 2457 Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 June 2006 / Accepted: 11 September 2006 / Published: 30 December 2006
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The main objective of this project is to design a new extended release gastroretentive mutiparticulate delivery system for verapamil (VP) by incorporation into hydrogel beads made of chitosan. The beads were formed by dropping solutions of VP and chitosan in a solution of tripolyphosphate using a syringe pump with adjustable constant rate. The formed beads were then further crosslinked using glutraldehyde and the excess glutraldehyde were then washed. The physical properties of the prepared beads such as beads sizes, shapes, friabilities and loading efficiencies were determined. The floating characteristics and the release profiles were also studied. The produced beads from all batches showed a very good spherical geometry with mean diameter in the range of 1.3 – 2.0 mm. The drug loading efficiency was around 42% for all batches. The % friabilities were less than 1% indicating that the beads surfaces are highly resistant to attrition. Batches B3 and B4 (prepared using medium molecular weight chitosan) showed both the slowest release rate among all the prepared batches and showed good floating characteristics comprising short onset (around 5 minutes) and the long duration of buoyancy (more than 6 hours). All the batches exhibited a kinetic model of combined mechanism of diffusion partially through a swollen matrix and partially through water-filled pores. The preparation of chitosan beads using this technique would provide a simple and commercially viable method of preparation of chitosan beads for controlling the release of some drugs.
Keywords: Verapamil; floating; chitosan; gastro-retentive; controlled-release Verapamil; floating; chitosan; gastro-retentive; controlled-release
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yassin, A.E.B.; Alsarra, I.A.; Al-Mohizea, A.M. Chitosan Beads as a New Gastroretentive System of Verapamil. Sci. Pharm. 2006, 74, 175-188.

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