The rapidly expanding field of bioactive lipids is exemplified by the many sphingolipids, which are structurally and functionally diverse molecules with significant physiologic functions. These sphingolipids are main constituents of cellular membranes and have been found associated with plasma lipoproteins, and their concentrations are altered in several metabolic disorders such as atherosclerosis, obesity, and diabetes. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate their biosynthesis and secretion may provide novel information that might be amenable to therapeutic targeting in the treatment of these diseases. Several sphingolipid synthesis genes have been targeted as potential therapeutics for atherosclerosis. In recent years, significant progress has been made in studying the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in lipid metabolism. However, little effort has been made to investigate their role in sphingolipid metabolism. Sphingolipid biosynthetic pathways involve various enzymes that lead to the formation of several key molecules implicated in atherosclerosis, and the identification of miRNAs that regulate these enzymes could help us to understand these complex pathways better and may prove beneficial in alleviating atherosclerosis.
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