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Antioxidants and Cardiovascular Risk Factors
Open AccessReview

Uric Acid for Cardiovascular Risk: Dr. Jekyll or Mr. Hide?

Fondazione CNR-Regione Toscana G Monasterio and Istituto di Fisiologia Clinica, Italian National Research Council, Pisa I-56124, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Esra Capanoglu
Diseases 2016, 4(1), 12;
Received: 22 December 2015 / Revised: 18 February 2016 / Accepted: 19 February 2016 / Published: 26 February 2016
Uric acid (UA) is a potent endogenous antioxidant. However, high concentrations of this molecule have been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and renal dysfunction, involving mechanisms that include oxidative stress, inflammatory processes, and endothelial injury. Experimental and in vitro results suggest that this biomarker behaves like other antioxidants, which can shift from the physiological antioxidant action to a pro-oxidizing effect according to their level and to microenvironment conditions. However, data on patients (general population or CAD cohorts) are controversial, so the debate on the role of hyperuricemia as a causative factor for CVD is still ongoing. Increasing evidence indicates UA as more meaningful to assess CVD in women, even though this aspect needs deeper investigation. It will be important to identify thresholds responsible for UA “biological shift” from protective to harmful effects in different pathological conditions, and according to possible gender-related differences. In any case, UA is a low-tech and inexpensive biomarker, generally performed at patient’s hospitalization and, therefore, easily accessible information for clinicians. For these reasons, UA might represent a useful additive tool as much as a CV risk marker. Thus, in view of available evidence, progressive UA elevation with levels higher than 6 mg/dL could be considered an “alarm” for increased CV risk. View Full-Text
Keywords: uric acid; health; oxidative stress; antioxidants; cardiovascular disease uric acid; health; oxidative stress; antioxidants; cardiovascular disease
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Vassalle, C.; Mazzone, A.; Sabatino, L.; Carpeggiani, C. Uric Acid for Cardiovascular Risk: Dr. Jekyll or Mr. Hide? Diseases 2016, 4, 12.

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