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Do Executive Attentional Processes Uniquely or Commonly Explain Psychometric g and Correlations in the Positive Manifold? A Structural Equation Modeling and Network-Analysis Approach to Investigate the Process Overlap Theory
 
 
Article

In Search of the Executive Cognitive Processes Proposed by Process-Overlap Theory

1
Department of Psychology, University of Zurich, Binzmuehlestrasse 14, 8050 Zurich, Switzerland
2
Department of Psychology, University Sheffield, Sheffield S1 1HD, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 November 2020 / Revised: 23 July 2021 / Accepted: 10 August 2021 / Published: 19 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue g and Its Underlying Executive Processes)
Process-Overlap Theory (POT) suggests that measures of cognitive abilities sample from sets of independent cognitive processes. These cognitive processes can be separated into domain-general executive processes, sampled by the majority of cognitive ability measures, and domain-specific processes, sampled only by measures within a certain domain. According to POT, fluid intelligence measures are related because different tests sample similar domain-general executive cognitive processes to some extent. Re-analyzing data from a study by De Simoni and von Bastian (2018), we assessed domain-general variance from executive processing tasks measuring inhibition, shifting, and efficiency of removal from working memory, as well as examined their relation to a domain-general factor extracted from fluid intelligence measures. The results showed that domain-general factors reflecting general processing speed were moderately and negatively correlated with the domain-general fluid intelligence factor (r = −.17–−.36). However, domain-general factors isolating variance specific to inhibition, shifting, and removal showed only small and inconsistent correlations with the domain-general fluid intelligence factor (r = .02–−.22). These findings suggest that (1) executive processing tasks sample only few domain-general executive processes also sampled by fluid intelligence measures, as well as (2) that domain-general speed of processing contributes more strongly to individual differences in fluid intelligence than do domain-general executive processes. View Full-Text
Keywords: intelligence; executive processes; working memory; processing speed; Process-Overlap Theory intelligence; executive processes; working memory; processing speed; Process-Overlap Theory
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MDPI and ACS Style

Frischkorn, G.T.; von Bastian, C.C. In Search of the Executive Cognitive Processes Proposed by Process-Overlap Theory. J. Intell. 2021, 9, 43. https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence9030043

AMA Style

Frischkorn GT, von Bastian CC. In Search of the Executive Cognitive Processes Proposed by Process-Overlap Theory. Journal of Intelligence. 2021; 9(3):43. https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence9030043

Chicago/Turabian Style

Frischkorn, Gidon T., and Claudia C. von Bastian. 2021. "In Search of the Executive Cognitive Processes Proposed by Process-Overlap Theory" Journal of Intelligence 9, no. 3: 43. https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence9030043

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