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Computation 2018, 6(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/computation6010005

Optimization of Airfoils Using the Adjoint Approach and the Influence of Adjoint Turbulent Viscosity

1
ForWind, University of Oldenburg, Ammerländer Heerstr. 114-118, 26129 Oldenburg, Germany
2
Fraunhofer Institute for Wind Energy Systems, Küpkersweg 70, 26129 Oldenburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 12 January 2018 / Accepted: 17 January 2018 / Published: 20 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Methods in Wind Engineering)
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Abstract

The adjoint approach in gradient-based optimization combined with computational fluid dynamics is commonly applied in various engineering fields. In this work, the gradients are used for the design of a two-dimensional airfoil shape, where the aim is a change in lift and drag coefficient, respectively, to a given target value. The optimizations use the unconstrained quasi-Newton method with an approximation of the Hessian. The flow field is computed with a finite-volume solver where the continuous adjoint approach is implemented. A common assumption in this approach is the use of the same turbulent viscosity in the adjoint diffusion term as for the primal flow field. The effect of this so-called “frozen turbulence” assumption is compared to the results using adjoints to the Spalart–Allmaras turbulence model. The comparison is done at a Reynolds number of R e = 2 × 10 6 for two different airfoils at different angles of attack. View Full-Text
Keywords: airfoil optimization; gradient-based; adjoint approach; frozen turbulence; adjoint turbulence; OpenFOAM airfoil optimization; gradient-based; adjoint approach; frozen turbulence; adjoint turbulence; OpenFOAM
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Schramm, M.; Stoevesandt, B.; Peinke, J. Optimization of Airfoils Using the Adjoint Approach and the Influence of Adjoint Turbulent Viscosity. Computation 2018, 6, 5.

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