Next Article in Journal
Horrendous-Difference Disabilities, Resurrected Saints, and the Beatific Vision: A Theodicy
Previous Article in Journal
Nurses’ Understanding of Spirituality and the Spirituality of Older People with Dementia in the Continuing Care Setting
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Religions 2018, 9(2), 51;

Who Benefits from Consociationalism? Religious Disparities in Lebanon’s Political System

Department of Sociology, Baylor University, Waco, TX 97326, USA
Received: 28 November 2017 / Revised: 2 February 2018 / Accepted: 3 February 2018 / Published: 8 February 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [232 KB, uploaded 8 February 2018]


This study examines the extent to which confessional identities in Lebanon are responsible for shaping individual views toward their government. Specifically, I investigate disparities between religious groups in their perceptions of democracy and democratic principles as applied in Lebanon. Using nationally representative data from the Arab Barometer’s survey of Lebanon, I find that when compared to Maronite Catholics, Druze, and Sunni Muslims, Shia Muslims consistently give higher evaluations of the democratic condition of Lebanon. When compared to members of other religious groups, Shia Muslims are also more trusting of government institutions and perceive Lebanon to be freer. I find little evidence that the application of consociational theory equally and proportionally represents the political needs of the religious groups intended to be served. Rather, my findings reveal religious disparities in evaluations of democracy and political institutions in Lebanon, supporting critics of consociationalism who argue that consociationalism essentializes group-identity to political disputes. View Full-Text
Keywords: religion; ethnicity; Lebanon; Middle East; politics; consociationalism religion; ethnicity; Lebanon; Middle East; politics; consociationalism
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Vaughan, K. Who Benefits from Consociationalism? Religious Disparities in Lebanon’s Political System. Religions 2018, 9, 51.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Religions EISSN 2077-1444 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert Logo copyright Steve Bridenbaugh/UUA
Back to Top