2. Islamophobia: Definitions and Implications
- Monolithic: Islam is seen as a monolithic entity that does not change in encountering new realities
- Separate: Islam is considered as separate from and having nothing in common with other cultures
- Inferior: Islam is deemed as inferior to the West, irrational, barbaric, primitive, and sexist
- Enemy: Islam is portrayed as violent, aggressive, threatening, and engaging in a “clash of civilization”
- Manipulative: Islam is considered as a political ideology, not a sincere religious belief
- Criticism of the West rejected: Muslim criticism of the West are rejected out of hand
- Discrimination defended: Discriminatory practices against Muslims are justified and Muslims are excluded from mainstream society
- Islamophobiaseen as natural: Islamophobia is accepted as something natural and normal.
Online Islamophobia can be defined as Islamophobic prejudice that targets a victim in order to provoke, cause hostility and promote intolerance by means of harassment, stalking, abuse, incitement, threatening behavior, bullying and intimidating of the person or persons, via all platforms of social media. (p. 6)
3. Brexit and Twitter Islamophobia
4. Studying Twitter: Methods
5. Analysis of Islamophobic Tweets
5.1. Internet-Based Views of Islam
5.2. Specific Characteristics of Internet-Based Islamophobia
6. Discussing Online Islamophobia
Conflicts of Interest
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