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Open AccessArticle

Presenting a 4-Item Spiritual Well-Being Index (4-ISWBI)

by 1,* and 2
Faculty of Education and Arts, Federation University Australia, Ballarat, VIC 3350, Australia
Department of International Education & Lifelong learning, Education University of Hong Kong, Tai Po 4600-652, Hong Kong
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Religions 2017, 8(9), 179;
Received: 11 July 2017 / Revised: 23 August 2017 / Accepted: 29 August 2017 / Published: 4 September 2017
Spiritual well-being is perceived to be reflected in the quality of relationships that people have in four areas, namely with God, others, nature, and self. Many spiritual well-being questionnaires exist, but not many provide an adequate assessment of these four relationships. As part of a survey of parental perceptions of holistic early childhood education in kindergartens in Hong Kong, 1383 parents and 165 teachers, from 22 kindergartens, completed a written survey questionnaire which helped to investigate the potential for a single question with four parts to provide a valid and reliable measure for spiritual well-being. Face, content, and construct validity were confirmed, together with Cronbach’s alpha providing a test for reliability. Similarity of findings from regression analysis of items in the 4-ISWBI with domains of spiritual well-being in the 20-item SHALOM, as well as partial discrimination by gender, reinforce the validity of the 4-ISWBI as a sound indicator of spiritual well-being and its four domains. In brief, the 4-Item Spiritual Well-Being Index (4-ISWBI) promises to be a handy instrument to aid researchers looking for a convenient, concise, coherent indicator, but not an exhaustive measure, of spiritual well-being. View Full-Text
Keywords: assess; spiritual well-being; SHALOM assess; spiritual well-being; SHALOM
MDPI and ACS Style

Fisher, J.; Ng, D. Presenting a 4-Item Spiritual Well-Being Index (4-ISWBI). Religions 2017, 8, 179.

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