- freely available
Religions 2016, 7(12), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel7120150
金 永陵 生MINNIE VAUTRIN“GODDESS OF MERCY”MISSIONARY TO CHINA28 YEARS1886–1941
2.1. Ginling Campus
Never shall I forget the faces of the young girls as they streamed in—most of them parting from their fathers or husbands at the gate. They had disguised themselves in every possible way—many had cut their hair, most of them had blackened their faces, many were wearing men or boy’s clothes or those of old women. Mr. Wang, Mr. Hsia, Mary and I spent our days at the gate trying to keep idlers out and let the women come in. At our peak load[,] we must have had ten thousand on the campus...I shall never forget the faces of the fathers and husbands as they watched their women folk enter the campus. Often times the tears were streaming down their cheeks as they begged us to “just give them a place to sleep outside.”
2.2. Witness to the Nanking Massacre
2.2.1. Mass Slaughter
We found the old man lying in [the] middle of the road...The old man had refused to go to the Embassy for protection, saying he was sure nothing would harm him...Those of you who have lived in Nanking can never imagine how the streets look like—the saddest sight I ever hope to see. Buses and cars upset in street, dead bodies here and there, with faces already black, discarded soldiers’ clothing everywhere, every house and shop looted and smashed if not burned. In the Safety Zone the streets are crowded—outside you seldom see anyone but Japanese.(, 21 December 1937)
At its edge[,] there were scores of black charred bodies and among them two empty kerosene or gasoline cans. The hands of the men were wired behind them. How many bodies there were, and whether or not they were machine[-]gunned first, and then burned, I do not know, but I hope so. In a smaller pond to the west were perhaps 20-40 more charred bodies. The shoes I saw on several men looked like civilian shoes[,] not soldiers. All through the hills are unburied bodies.(, 26 January 1938)
From the time they were able to encoffin bodies, i.e., about the middle of January to 14 April, their society had buried 1793 bodies found in the city, and of this number about 80% were civilians; outside the city during this time they have buried 39,589 men, women, and children and about 2.5% of this number were civilians. These figures do not include Hsia Gwan [Xia Guan] and Shan Sin Ho [Shang Xin He] which we know were terrible in the loss of life.(, 15 April 1938)
2.2.2. Sexual Crimes
About ten o’clock I was called to my office to interview the high military advisor for the—division. Fortunately[,] he had an interpreter with him, an old Chinese interpreter for the Embassy. The request was that they [are] allowed to pick out prostitute women from our ten thousand refugees. They said they wanted one hundred. They feel if they can start a regular[ly] licensed place for the soldiers, then they will not molest innocent and decent women. After promising they would not take any of the latter, we permitted them to begin their search, the adviser sitting in my office during the search. After a long time[,] they finally secured twenty-one, but group after group of girls have asked me if they will select the other seventy-nine from among the decent girls—and all I can answer is that they will not do so if it is in my power to prevent it.(, 24 December 1937)
2.3. Operating Programs in Rehabilitation and Christian Education
2.3.1. Food and Medical Protection
2.3.2. Cash Relief, Work Relief, and Small Investment
- Case 1:
- Woman Li was 60 years old. Her husband Chen was 62. On 16 December, their three sons were taken by the Japanese army and nothing had been heard. Li’s eldest son was 35, a seller of fish. He left his wife and four children. Li’s second son was 29, a dumpling maker. He left a wife who was expecting a little child very soon. Li’s third son was 17 and unmarried. He had been selling papers to make a living. Li was given $6.00 to start a small business for selling doughnuts for Chinese breakfasts.
- Case 2:
- Li Yung-shi was 35 years old. Her husband was an umbrella maker and had been taken by Japanese on 15 December and disappeared. She and her two little girls aged 14 and 5 were living at the home of some neighbors who felt sorry for her. Li’s home was burned by the Chinese army for military purposes related to defense and she had nothing left. Even her bedding had been taken by Japanese soldiers when they seized the city. She was given $6.00 to begin a small business selling candles, fans, soap, etc.
- Case 3:
- Wang Siu-shing was 21 years old. Her mother died in the autumn of 1937 during the air raids. On 16 December, her father, age 43, her uncle, age 31, and a younger brother of 19 were all taken by the Japanese soldiers. Left with three younger brothers, one of 16 with mental problems and the others only 13 and 6, Wang received $5.00 to start a business. They had returned to the home of one friend of her parents, but that family was also very poor and could not help.
2.3.3. Mental Relief and Bible Classes
There have been five members of my [Disciples of Christ] mission in the 14 missionaries in Nanking, and wish [there] were more, for all five of us are tied up in institutions and do not have time to give to our churches. I cannot tell you how great that opportunity is now—a great open door within which we could do untold service through sympathy, understanding, and helpfulness. If all our evangelistic men and women were here, they could not meet this need.
2.4. Petition for Civilian Men
The Japanese are said to be very near Gwang Hwa Gate [Guang Hua Men]. Fires have been seen around the city a good part of [the] day, and tonight the sky to the west is aflame—the destruction of the houses of the poor just outside city wall. John Magee says his compound looks like an island in a sea of smoldering ruins...when the city is turned over. Who will take care of them during coming months?.(, 10 December 1937)
Tonight Nanking has no lights, no water, no telephone, no telegraph, no city paper, no radio. We are indeed separated from all of you by an impenetrable zone.(, 13 December 1937)
Tonight I asked George Fitch how the day went and what progress they had made. And his reply was, “It was hell today. The blackest day of my life.” Certainly[,] it was the same for me...Oh, God, control the cruel beastliness of the soldiers in Nanking tonight, comfort the heartbroken mothers and fathers whose innocent sons have been shot today, and guard the young women and girls through the agonizing hours of this night. Speed the day when wars shall be no more.(, 16 December 1937)
It seems in several homes near West Flower Gate [Xi Hua Men], the soldiers failing to find young girls are using teenage boys.
I shall never bring pressure on women to leave again. My experience on that was too bitter. One married woman of 27 whom we urged to go back to her husband about December 20 was raped by three soldiers within three hours after she left us; a woman of 48 was raped by six men the night she left us. I learned my lesson and will not easily forget it.(, 4 April 1938)
Dear Friends:This process of mental deterioration has evidently been going on for years without my realizing it. I prefer death to insanity. To all who have been so loving, so patient and so generous I am deeply grateful. To my family in Michigan[,] I cannot express my remorse and sorrow. I should have meant so much to them but I have meant so little in their lives.This failure has been unconscious on my part—not intentional. I cannot forgive myself—so I do not ask you to forgive.I know many of you think I am better—but as a matter of fact[,] my mind is fast reaching a state beyond my control.I have deeply loved and respected the cause of missions and Ginling College. Had I ten perfect lives I would dedicate them all to this cause of Kingdom building—but alas! I have failed and injured the cause with the one life which has been mine. My remorse and regret are deep and genuine.May those of you who have dedicated your strength to this great work, be given the vision and strength and courage to go forward—and to be faithful to the end.Sincerely yours,(signed) Minnie Vautrin
Conflicts of Interest
|Allison, John Moore||阿利森/爱利生|
|Bates, Miner Searle||贝德士/贝茨/裴志/裴滋|
|Bei Men Qiao (Beimen chiao)||北门桥|
|Bible Teachers Training School for Women||金陵女子神学院|
|Cai Yu xun zhang||采玉勋章|
|Durdin, Frank Tillman||杜丁/德丁|
|Fitch, George Ashmore||费吴生/费奇/菲奇|
|Forster, Ernest Herman||福斯特/福斯多/厄内斯特|
|Gale, F. C.||盖尔|
|Gin Ling Yong Sheng||金陵永生|
|Gu Lou yi yuan (University of Nanking Hospital)||鼓楼医院|
|Guan Yin pu sa (Guanyin Buddha/Goddess of Mercy)||观音菩萨|
|Guang Hua Men (Gwang Hwa Gate)||光华门|
|Hu Ju Guan (Hu Gi Gwan)||虎踞关|
|Huo pu sa (Living Buddha/Goddess of Mercy)||活菩萨|
|Jacquinot Safe Zone (Rao Jiaju/Shanghai/Nanshi an quan qu)||饶家驹/上海/南市安全区|
|Jinling da xue (University of Nanking)||金陵大学|
|jiu ming (giu ming)||救命|
|Magee, John Gillespie||马吉/梅奇/马约翰|
|McCallum, James Henry||麦卡伦/麦考伦/麦卡勒姆|
|McDaniel, Charles Yates||麦克丹尼尔|
|Menken, Arthur von Briesen||门肯|
|Mills, Wilson Plumer||米尔士/米尔斯/密尔士|
|Mo Fan jian yu (Model Prison)||模范监狱|
|Nanjing da tu sha (Nanking Massacre/Nanking Atrocity/Rape of Nanking)||南京大屠杀|
|Nanjing guo ji an quan qu (Nanking International Safety Zone)||南京国际安全区|
|Nanking Theological Seminary||金陵神学院|
|Pickering, J. V.||毕戈林/皮克林|
|Rabe, John D.||拉贝/拉比/锐比/艾拉培|
|Riggs, Charles Henry||林查理/里格斯/李格斯|
|San Cha He (San Chia-ho)||三岔河|
|Shang Xin He (Shan Sin Ho)||上新河|
|Smith, Leslie C.||史密斯|
|Smythe, Lewis Strong Casey||史迈士/斯迈思|
|Sone, Hubert Lafayette||宋煦伯/宋尼/索恩|
|Steele, Archibald Trojan||斯提尔/斯蒂尔|
|Steward, Albert N.||史德蔚/司徒华/司徒尔特|
|Thurston, Matilda Calder||德本康夫人|
|Timperley, Harold John||田伯烈/丁伯莱|
|Trautmann, Oskar Paul||陶德曼/特劳特曼|
|Trimmer, Clifford Sharp||特里默/德利谟/崔默|
|Tsen, Shui-fang/Mrs. Tsen (Cheng, Ruifang)||程瑞芳/程夫人|
|Twinem, Mrs. Paul de Witt (Mary D. Fine)||戴籁三夫人/特文兰太太/德威南太太|
|Vautrin, Minnie/Wilhelmina (Hua Qun/Ms. Hua/Hua xiao jie)||魏特琳/沃特林/华群/华小姐|
|Wilson, Robert Ory||威尔逊|
|Xi Hua Men (West Flower Gate)||西花门|
|Xia Guan (Hsia Gwan)||下关|
|Xu, Chuanyin (Hsu, C. Y.)||许传音|
|Yan Zi Ji (Yen Dz Gi)||燕子矶|
|Zi zhi wei yuan hui (Tze Chih Wei Yuen Hwei, Autonomous Committee/Self-Government Committee)||自治委员会|
- Hua-ling Hu. American Goddess at the Rape of Nanking: The Courage of Minnie Vautrin. Carbondale: South Illinois University Press, 2000. [Google Scholar]
- Diary of Wilhelmina [Minnie] Vautrin, 1937–1940 (FILM Ms 62). Directed by Archival Microfilming Services. New Haven: Archival Microfilming Services, 1993, Archives of the United Board for Christian Higher Education in Asia, Record Groups of No. 8 and No. 11, Special Collections, Yale University Divinity School Library.
- Minnie Vautrin. Terror in Minnie Vautrin’s Nanjing: Diaries and Correspondence, 1937–38. Edited by Suping Lu. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2008. [Google Scholar]
- R. John Pritchard, and Sonia Magbanua Zaide, eds. The Tokyo War Crimes Trial, Vol. XX, Judgment and Annexes. New York: Garland Publishing, 1981.
- Suping Lu, ed. A Mission under Duress: The Nanjing Massacre and Post-Massacre Social Conditions Documented by American Diplomats. Lanham: University Press of America, 2010.
- Joshua A. Fogel, ed. The Nanjing Massacre in History and Historiography. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.
- Xingzu Gao. “Zai ‘Qin hua ri jun Nanjing da tu sha guo ji xue shu yan tao hui’ shang de jiang hua (A Keynote Speech at the International Conference on Nanking Massacre).” In Qin Hua Ri Jun Nanjing Da Tu Sha Guo Ji Xue Shu Yan Tao Hui Lun Wen Ji (Papers of the International Conference on Nanking Massacre). Edited by Anji Chen. Hefei: Anhui University Publisher, 1998. [Google Scholar]
- Kaiyuan Zhang, ed. Eyewitness to Massacre: American Missionaries Bear Witness to Japanese Atrocities in Nanjing. New York: M. E. Sharpe, 2001.
- “Nanking Massacre Archival Project (NMP).” Yale University Divinity School Library. Available online: http://web.library.yale.edu/divinity/nanking/documents (accessed on 28 May 2016).
- Suping Lu. They Were in Nanjing: The Nanjing Massacre Witnessed by American and British Nationals. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2004. [Google Scholar]
- Minnie Vautrin. “A Review of the First Month, December 13, 1937–January 13, 1938.” Archives of the United Board for Christian Higher Education in Asia, Record Group No. 11, Box 145, Folder 2875, Special Collections, Yale University Divinity School Library.
- Minnie Vautrin. “The Second Report: A Review of the Period January 14–March 31, 1938.” Archives of the United Board for Christian Higher Education in Asia, Record Group No. 11, Box 145, Folder 2876, Special Collections, Yale University Divinity School Library.
- Sheng Zhang. “Nanjing da tu sha shou hai zhe PTSD chu bu yan jiu (The PTSD Study of the Victims of the Nanking Massacre).” Kang Ri Zhan Zheng Yan Jiu (The Journal of Studies of China’s Resistance War Against Japan) 74 (2009): 23–32. [Google Scholar]
- Timothy Brook, ed. Documents on the Rape of Nanking. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1999.
- 1C. M. Yocum, “Dear Friends of Minnie Vautrin”. 15 May 1941, Correspondence, Minnie Vautrin, Disciples of Christ Historical Society Library, Nashville, Tennessee (cited in ).
- 2In this paper, when I cite the Diary of Wilhelmina [Minnie] Vautrin, 1937–1940, I used the Diary date after the reference number . See this citation on the last page (no page number) of the Diary, “Minnie Vautrin”, condensed from notes provided by Dr. Treudley and Mrs. New, December 1968.
- 3Hua-ling Hu’s interview with Ms. Emma Lyon, Vautrin’s niece, at Shepherd, MI, USA, 25–26 May 1995 (cited in ).
- 4I thank one of the anonymous reviewers for his or her expertise on this point.
- 5See the letter Minnie Vautrin sent to “Dear Mrs. Thurston, Yi-fang, Ruth and Rebecca” on 6 January 1938. It states that “About December 17th, when we had our peak load, we think we must have had at least 9000 or 10,000 people”, in Anna E. Moffet Jarvis, Correspondence, China Records Project Miscellaneous Personal Papers Collection, Record Group 8, Box 103, Special Collections, Yale University Divinity School Library. Also a diplomatic telegram John M. Alison, third secretary of the American Embassy in Nanking who dispatched on Minnie Vautrin’s behalf to Priest Abchicol (also named Rebecca Walter Griest) on 6 January 1938, states that “Are now sheltering approximately 10,000 women and children”, in Record Group 59, Box 1795, the National Archives II, College Park, MD. I cited from the source  on page 109 and page 111.
- 6The International Military Tribunal for Far East (IMTFE) (Tokyo War Crimes Trial) estimated and judged this number of people had been murdered during the first six-week period. On page 6 of reference , Joshua A. Fogel admitted that there was an argument about the numbers, but he and the other contributors of that volume, Mark Eykholt, Charles Maier, Daqing Yang, and Takashi Yoshida, “are all of a mind that a great massacre occurred, and whether 200,000 people were killed or 240,000 does not alter the dimensions of the horror.”
- 7According to the judgment of the International Military Tribunal for Far East, “Approximately 20,000 cases of rape occurred within the city during the first month of the occupation.”
- 8George Ashmore Fitch. “Diary.” In Archives of the United Board for Christian Higher Education in Asia, Record Group No. 11, Box 9, File 202, Special Collections, Yale University Divinity School Library (cited in ).
- 9“Report of the Nanking International Relief Committee (November 1937–30 April 1938).” In the Miner Searle Bates Paper, Record Group No. 10, Box 102, Folder 868: Nanking during Sino-Japanese conflict April-Nov. 1938. I cited from the Nanking Massacre Archival Project, NMP 0248, by the Yale University Divinity School Library. On 19 February 1938, the International Committee for Nanking Safety Zone changed its name to the Nanking International Relief Committee, in order to concentrate on relief work in the city.
- 10The thirteen American missionaries were: Dr. Miner Searle Bates (University of Nanking, Administrator and Professor), Ms. Grace Louis Bauer (University Hospital, Lab Technician), Rev. George A. Fitch (Nanking YMCA, Secretary), Rev. Ernest H. Forster (American Church Mission, Clergyman), Rev. John Magee (American Church Mission, Clergyman), Rev. James McCallum (United Christian Missionary Society, Clergyman who worked for the University Hospital), Rev. Wilson Plumer Mills (Northern Presbyterian Mission, Clergyman), Mr. Charles H. Riggs (University of Nanking, Professor), Dr. Lewis S. C. Smythe (University of Nanking, Professor), Dr. Rev. Hubert Sone (Nanking Theological Seminary, Professor), Dr. Clifford S. Trimmer (University Hospital, Doctor), Ms. Minnie Vautrin (Ginling College, Administer and Professor), and Dr. Robert Ory Wilson (University Hospital, Doctor). I compiled this list with data and cross-referenced with research from the references. This list does not include Mrs. Paul de Witt Twinem (Mary D. Fine) as she had given up American citizenship for a Chinese one, but she functioned as a foreign missionary during the Rape of Nanking. This list also excludes Ms. Iva Hynds, an American nurse at the University Hospital, because I did not find records to indicate her direct connection with any mission. Considering the University Hospital was a missionary institute and her close work relationships, Ms. Hynds probably could be counted as a medical missionary. Four other Americans remaining at the time of the fall of Nanking were Frank Tillman Durdin (The New York Times, Journalist), Charles Yates McDaniel (Associated Press, Journalist), Arthur von Briesen Menken (Paramount Newsreels, Journalist), and Archibald Trojan Steele (Chicago Diary News, Journalist). A total of eighteen Americans stayed.
- 11Letter from Minnie Vautrin to Mrs. Thurston on 9 March 1938. Record Group 11, Box 145, Folder 2875, Special Collections, Yale University Divinity School Library (cited in ).
- 12Letter from Dr. Robert O. Wilson to Family (15 December 1937–9 January 1938), in Record Group 11, Box 229, Folder 3875, College Files: University of Nanking: Correspondence: Wilson, Robert 1937, Yale University Divinity School Library. Dr. Wilson’s letter of diary on December 18 recorded that, “Today marks the sixth day of the modern Dante’s Inferno, written in huge letters with blood and rape. Murder by wholesale and rape by the thousands of cases.” See The Nanking Massacre Archival Project, NMP 0016 (cited in ).
- 13Here, Vautrin made a typographical mistake in her diary that “Belimen” should be “Bei Men”.
- 14The numbers of this paragraph and of this note, except from reference , can be found all from the source “Report of the Nanking International Relief Committee (November 1937–April 30, 1938)”, in Miner Searle Bates Paper, The Nanking Massacre Archival Project, NMP 0248. The numbers of refugees in the Safety Zone were: February for 36,800, March for 26,700, and April for 21,750.
- 15According to Vautrin’s Diary on 16 March, there were 3310 refugees in the following six buildings (with number following the name of the building) at Ginling campus: Central 528, Science 517, Arts 885, Dormitory Northeast 487, Dormitory Northwest 431, and Dormitory Southwest 497.
- 16Before 8 a.m. on 29 May, Mr. Chen checked on the Ginling camp population which stood at only 923 in six buildings (with number following the name of the building): Central 212, Science 115, Recitation Hall 260, (Northeast) 700 Dormitory 119, (Northwest) 600 Dormitory 78, (Southeast or Faculty House) 500 Dormitory 139. I used the Ginling College 1937 map from source  (no page number) drawn by Suping Lu to indicate the names of buildings in this note.
- 17The amount of inoculated people in four days from 26-29 April 1938 was respectively 363, 314, 214, and 310.
- 18Including the numbers of the next sentence, see “Report of the Nanking International Relief Committee (November 1937–April 30, 1938)”, in Miner Searle Bates Paper, The Nanking Massacre Archival Project, NMP 0248.
- 19Letter from Minnie Vautrin to Mrs. Thurston on 9 March 1938. Record Group 11, Box 145, Folder 2875, Special Collections, Yale University Divinity School Library. The five members of the United Christian Missionary Society (Disciples of Christ) were Miner Searle Bates (Administrator and Professor of History at the University of Nanking), Grace Louise Bauer (Medical Lab Technician at the University Hospital), James Henry McCallum (Administrator of University Hospital), Lewis Strong Casey Smythe (Secretary of the International Committee and Professor of Sociology at the University of Nanking), and Minnie Vautrin (Administrator and Professor of Education at Ginling College). This list is compiled with data from the Nanking Massacre Archival Project and cross-referenced with the research from two source books (, pp. xviii–xxvii; , pp. 11–18).
- 20The West Flower Gate was the western gate of the Ming Forbidden City. The city was burned and destroyed in the early 1860s during the Taiping Heavenly Rebellion. In the 1930s, only relics of the gate remained. Vautrin refers to the neighborhood near the former gate.
- 21Minnie Vautrin, “Last Message”, 14 May 1941, correspondence, Disciples of Christ Historical Society Library, Nashville, Tennessee (cited in ).
© 2016 by the author; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).