2. International Humanitarianism within American Evangelicalism
3. Defining Evangelicalism
4. Evangelical Missions in the 1950s
5. An Evolving Evangelicalism, 1960s–1970s
5.1. Establishment Evangelicals 
5.2. The Rise of a Progressive Evangelicalism
5.3. Evangelical Missions
6. An Emerging Evangelical Humanitarianism
6.1. World Vision’s Evolving Evangelical Identity
6.2. World Vision and World Hunger
6.3. The Evangelical Relief and Development Sector Takes Shape
7. Going Mainstream: Evangelical Humanitarianism in the 1980s–1990s
8. Evangelicals as the New Internationalists: 1995–Present
The bitter battle between conservative Christians who emphasize evangelism and liberal Christians who stress social action that weakened the church for much of this century has largely ended. Increasingly, most agree that Christians should combine the Good News with good works and imitate Jesus' special concern for the poor.
- 1 The continual debate of evangelical definition has raised the larger question of whether unity or diversity should serve as the dominant image of evangelicalism in America. Timothy Smith has described evangelicals as a kaleidoscope or mosaic. Randall Balmer prefers the image of a “patchwork quilt” in order to capture a diverse yet folksy evangelicalism [25,26].
- 2 Another debate centers on whether evangelicalism is described best as a primarily an intellectual, doctrinal movement or as a populist religious tradition. This debate has been fought most clearly between George Marsden and Donald Dayton. George Marsden sees the Reformed tradition at the heart of the evangelical story. Timothy Smith and Donald Dayton view it as predominantly Arminian or “pentecostal”, emphasizing the activity of Methodists, Pentecostals, and the host of Revivalist (almost arminianized) Calvinists. (Dayton’s “pentecostal” is for Methodists, holiness, Pentecostals alike-and doesn’t just fit the heirs of Azusa street.). Dayton has accused Marsden of overemphasizing the Reformed tradition to the exclusion of a more populist evangelical movement. Scholars such as Joel Carpenter and more recently Matthew A. Sutton serve to model a more intermediate position that demonstrates a more fluid overlap between these diverse traditions [27,28,29,30,31,32,33].
- 3 Few establishment evangelicals demeaned the Chicago Declaration. In fact, Billy Graham, in a post-Watergate interview with Christianity Today claimed, “We have a social responsibility, and I could identify with most of the recent Chicago Declaration of Evangelical Social Concern. I think we have to identify with the changing of structures in society and try to do our part” .
- 4 Evangelical bellwether, Christianity Today, admitted the expansion of the military, aid agencies, global businessmen, and sightseers marked “the comparative shrinkage of foreign missions to small potatoes in our international relations” .
References and Notes
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