Indonesian Catholic Bishops’ Attitudes toward Three Controverting Issues during Indonesia’s New Order (1966–1998)
2. The State of Questions and the Method
3. Church and State in Indonesia (in General)
The State shall be based upon the belief in the One and Only God.The State guarantees the freedom of worship for all inhabitants, each according to his/her religion or belief.
(1) Every person shall be free to choose and to practice the religion of his/her choice, to choose one’s education, to choose one’s employment, to choose one’s citizenship, and to choose one’s place of residence within the state territory, to leave it and to subsequently return to it.(2) Every person shall have the right to the freedom to believe his/her faith and to express his/her views and thoughts, following his/her conscience.
(1) The rights to life, freedom from torture, freedom of thought and conscience, freedom of religion, freedom from enslavement, recognition as a person before the law, and the right not to be tried under a law with retrospective effect are all human rights that cannot be limited under any circumstances.
In the light of the catholic faith, KWI is based on Pancasila in its involvement in the social life of the nation.
- The official document defines the essential characteristic of the Church; i.e., the ecclesial and religious characters, amid the concrete contexts of the society, and in the Church’s social involvement within Indonesian society.
- The Pancasila is not only the ideological basis of the State but also a way of life promoting the values of the Catholic faith.
- The ecclesial nature of the Conference is comprehensible.
4. Three Controverting Issues
4.1. Issue 1: Inter-Religious Marriage
4.1.1. State’s Policy
A marriage is a spiritual and physical bond between a man and a woman as a couple of a husband and of a wife who has a goal to build a happy and everlasting family based on the One and Only God.
As a state based on Pancasila, the first principle of which is the One and Only God, marriage has a close relationship with religion/spirituality, so that marriage has not only a physical component but has in its spiritual element an important role…
A marriage is valid if it is done according to the law of their religion and belief.Each marriage is registered following the current regulations.
4.1.2. The Indonesian Bishops’ Reactions
4.2. Issue 2: Divorce and Remarriage
4.2.1. State’s Policy
- Divorce can only be carried out before a court session after the court concerned has tried and failed to reconcile the two parties;
- To carry out a divorce there must be a sufficient reason that the husband and wife will not be able to live in harmony as husband and wife;
- The procedure for divorce before a court hearing is regulated in a separate statutory regulation.
“A person who is still bound by marriage to another person cannot remarry, except in the case referred to in Article 3 paragraph (2) and Article 4 of this Law”.
4.2.2. The Indonesian Bishops’ Solutions
4.3. Issue 3: Family Planning
4.3.1. State’s Policy
4.3.2. The Indonesian Bishops’ Opinions
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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Binawan, A.L. Indonesian Catholic Bishops’ Attitudes toward Three Controverting Issues during Indonesia’s New Order (1966–1998). Religions 2023, 14, 94. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel14010094
Binawan AL. Indonesian Catholic Bishops’ Attitudes toward Three Controverting Issues during Indonesia’s New Order (1966–1998). Religions. 2023; 14(1):94. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel14010094Chicago/Turabian Style
Binawan, Andang L. 2023. "Indonesian Catholic Bishops’ Attitudes toward Three Controverting Issues during Indonesia’s New Order (1966–1998)" Religions 14, no. 1: 94. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel14010094