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Alterations in Religious Rituals Due to COVID-19 Could Be Related to Intragroup Negativity: A Case of Changes in Receiving Holy Communion in the Roman Catholic Community in Poland

1
Institute of Psychology, University of Silesia, 40-007 Katowice, Poland
2
Institute of Theology, University of Silesia, 40-007 Katowice, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Edward Foley
Religions 2021, 12(4), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel12040240
Received: 28 February 2021 / Revised: 15 March 2021 / Accepted: 24 March 2021 / Published: 29 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Religions and Health/Psychology/Social Sciences)
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected various domains of everyday life, including important religious rituals. In the Roman Catholic Church in Poland, the reception of Holy Communion was substantially altered. The suggestion of the Polish Episcopal Conference and diocesan bishops was to receive Holy Communion on the hand during the pandemic, while receiving on the tongue had been the default form before the pandemic. The present studies investigated whether alterations in the form of receiving Holy Communion during the pandemic resulted in intragroup negativity. A total of 376 Polish Roman Catholics participated in two online studies. The most ambivalent emotions toward their religious community were experienced by the followers who recognized reception of Holy Communion on the hand only. Intergroup bias occurred within the “hand only” and the “mouth only” groups and consisted in out-group favoritism (within the “hand only”) and out-group derogation (“mouth only”) in their perception of religious orientation. Intergroup empathy bias occurred in the “hand only” and “spiritual reception” groups, which reported less empathy toward those of the out-group (“mouth only”) infected with SARS-CoV-2. The highest legitimacy of the Church authority was agreed upon by the supporters of both forms of receiving Holy Communion. View Full-Text
Keywords: alteration of ritual; religion; COVID-19 alteration of ritual; religion; COVID-19
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MDPI and ACS Style

Moroń, M.; Biolik-Moroń, M.; Matuszewski, K. Alterations in Religious Rituals Due to COVID-19 Could Be Related to Intragroup Negativity: A Case of Changes in Receiving Holy Communion in the Roman Catholic Community in Poland. Religions 2021, 12, 240. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel12040240

AMA Style

Moroń M, Biolik-Moroń M, Matuszewski K. Alterations in Religious Rituals Due to COVID-19 Could Be Related to Intragroup Negativity: A Case of Changes in Receiving Holy Communion in the Roman Catholic Community in Poland. Religions. 2021; 12(4):240. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel12040240

Chicago/Turabian Style

Moroń, Marcin, Magdalena Biolik-Moroń, and Krzysztof Matuszewski. 2021. "Alterations in Religious Rituals Due to COVID-19 Could Be Related to Intragroup Negativity: A Case of Changes in Receiving Holy Communion in the Roman Catholic Community in Poland" Religions 12, no. 4: 240. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel12040240

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