Development and Application of a Spiritual Well-Being Questionnaire Called SHALOM
2. Four Domains Model of Spiritual Health and Well-Being (4D model of SH/WB)
- A, if not the, fundamental dimension of people’s overall health and well-being, permeating and integrating all the other dimensions of health (i.e., physical, mental, emotional, social and vocational). Spiritual health is a dynamic state of being, shown by the extent to which people live in harmony within relationships in the following domains of spiritual well-being:
- Personal domain – wherein one intra-relates with oneself with regards to meaning, purpose and values in life. Self-awareness is the driving force or transcendent aspect of the human spirit in its search for identity and self-worth.
- Communal domain – as shown in the quality and depth of interpersonal relationships, between self and others, relating to morality, culture and religion. These are expressed in love, forgiveness, trust, hope and faith in humanity.
- Environmental domain – beyond care and nurture for the physical and biological, to a sense of awe and wonder; for some, the notion of unity with the environment.
- Transcendental domain – relationship of self with some-thing or some-One beyond the human level (i.e., ultimate concern, cosmic force, transcendent reality or God). This involves faith towards, adoration and worship of, the source of Mystery of the universe .
3. Development of Measures
3.1. Spiritual Health in Four Domains Index (SH4DI)
3.2. Spiritual Health And Life-Orientation Measure (SHALOM)
|sense of identity||love of other people|
|self-awareness||forgiveness toward others|
|joy in life||trust between individuals|
|inner peace||respect for others|
|meaning in life||kindness toward other people|
|connection with nature||personal relationship with the Divine/God|
|awe at a breathtaking view||worship of the Creator|
|oneness with nature||oneness with God|
|harmony with the environment||peace with God|
|sense of ‘magic’ in the environment||prayer life|
4. Applications of the Spiritual Well-Being Questionnaire
- Twenty of the recipients were no longer available at the stated e-mail address (15 of these were university students or staff no longer at the institutions).
- Fifteen people did not reply to any of the e-mails, even though their addresses still seemed to be ‘active.’
- Twenty-eight of the people requesting the instrument did not use it due to a variety of reasons: seven because the projects changed and two because they were cancelled; four used the information for reference only; one withdrew due to ill health; one could not use it because of ‘separation of church and state’ issues in public schools in the U.S.; one could not see any way of changing current practice in her health service; one thought it was not suitable for use with old people in Scotland (although SHALOM has been successfully used elsewhere with people aged into their 80s), one reported undefined difficulties by 11–13 year-olds in the U.S. (in spite of successful use in Australia with this age group [51,52] and even with 8–12 year-olds in Canada ), a Thai person wanted to use a specifically Thai instrument and two studies with Indigenous people (New Zealand and Canada) wanted more culturally-specific content (even though there has been a successful Canadian study using the SWBQ with First Nations people ). The main problem with using a particular measure is that the results cannot be compared with other research or groups. Moberg has emphasized the need to ‘combine particularistic and universal strategies for clinical assessments and scientific research’ in SWB . The SWBQ/SHALOM provides a valuable base for the universal study of SH/WB. Points of particular concern are easily employed in auxiliary questions, e.g., in questioning ways in which SWB is enhanced, items can include ancestor worship, importance of place, totem, sacred writings, symbols or rituals, etc. The item scores can then be correlated with the four SH/WB domain scores, and gender, personality, happiness, etc and for comparison between groups.
- Four people used the material as a basis for developing their own research procedures and/or instruments.
- Work is still in progress, with no reports yet from 19 of the studies.
- Reports were received from 23 researchers. Three of these researchers only reported α-values for the four domains of SH/WB and/or correlation values with personality and marital satisfaction, but not mean values for domain scores.
|Four domains of SWB|
|||Sec - state||Australia||141||3.58||0.78||3.77||0.7||3.24||0.89||2.57||1.01|
|||Pre-schl trs||Hong Kong||146||3.92||0.62||3.97||0.57||3.68||0.63||3.3||0.97|
|Four domains of SWB|
|||Uni - Tred||Australia||163||4.02||0.69||4.12||0.66||3.31||0.87||3.43||1.23|
|||Hlth ed Tred||Australia||20||3.70||4.06||2.76||2.08|
|||Pre-service trs||Hong Kong||574||3.95||0.64||4.05||0.6||3.46||0.71||2.95||1.11|
|||Tred - State||Australia||637||4.09||0.67||4.29||0.6||3.26||0.84||2.57||1.12|
|Four domains of SWB|
|||business and education stu||Australia||125||4.15||0.64||4.28||0.61||3.69||0.95||2.28||1.34|
|||business executives||Aus F||1179||3.82||0.68||3.85||0.61||3.27||0.78||2.62||1.16|
|||Domestic violence victims||S Africa||563||4.30||0.72||4.32||0.67||4.22||0.73||4.38||0.68|
|Four domains of SWB|
|||Public High School stu||S Africa||1173||4.78||0.78||3.74||0.66||3.44||0.84||3.22||0.83|
|||Spir Private||S Africa||111||4.73||0.8||3.74||0.69||3.46||0.81||3.3||0.69|
5. General Comments on SWBQ Studies
6. Spiritual Dissonance
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Fisher, J. Development and Application of a Spiritual Well-Being Questionnaire Called SHALOM. Religions 2010, 1, 105-121. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel1010105
Fisher J. Development and Application of a Spiritual Well-Being Questionnaire Called SHALOM. Religions. 2010; 1(1):105-121. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel1010105Chicago/Turabian Style
Fisher, John. 2010. "Development and Application of a Spiritual Well-Being Questionnaire Called SHALOM" Religions 1, no. 1: 105-121. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel1010105