A Pilot Study of the Adverse Events Caused by the Combined Use of Bevacizumab and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-Targeted Vaccination for Patients with a Malignant Glioma
Department of Neurosurgery, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan
OncoTherapy Science, Inc., 3-2-1, Sakado, Takatsu-ku, Kawasaki City, Kanagawa 213-0012, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Vaccines 2020, 8(3), 498; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8030498
Received: 2 July 2020 / Revised: 31 August 2020 / Accepted: 1 September 2020 / Published: 2 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Vaccines and Immunotherapy)
Anti-angiogenic therapy, targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A/VEGF receptors (VEGFRs), is beneficial for tumor growth prevention in a malignant glioma. A simultaneous blockade using both bevacizumab (Bev), which targets circulating VEGF-A, and a multi-kinase inhibitor on VEGFRs was more effective for advanced solid cancers, including melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. However, previous clinical trials demonstrated a high adverse event rate. Additionally, no studies previously assessed treatment efficacy and safety using both VEGF-A and VEGFR-targeted agents for malignant gliomas. We had conducted clinical trials investigating VEGFRs peptide vaccination in patients with malignant gliomas, in which the treatment exhibited safety and yielded therapeutic effects in some patients. The combined use of Bev and VEGFRs vaccination may enhance the anti-tumor effect in malignant gliomas. In this pilot study, the adverse event profile in patients treated with Bev after the vaccination was investigated to establish this treatment strategy, in comparison to those treated with Bev collected from the published data or treated with the vaccination alone. In our previous clinical studies on patients with malignant gliomas, Bev was administered to 13 patients after VEGFRs vaccinations. One patient had a Grade 4 pulmonary embolism. Two patients had Grade 2 cerebral infarctions. There were no significant differences in the adverse event rates among patients treated with Bev, with the vaccination, or with Bev after the vaccination. Although careful observation is imperative for patients after this combination treatment strategy, VEGFRs-targeted vaccination may coexist with Bev for malignant gliomas.