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Article

Mucosal Vaccination with UV-Inactivated Chlamydia suis in Pre-Exposed Outbred Pigs Decreases Pathogen Load and Induces CD4 T-Cell Maturation into IFN-γ+ Effector Memory Cells

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Department of Population Health and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, 1060 William Moore Drive, Raleigh, NC 27607, USA
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Comparative Medicine Institute, North Carolina State University, 1060 William Moore Drive, Raleigh, NC 27607, USA
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Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA
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College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, 1060 William Moore Drive, Raleigh, NC 27607, USA
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Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization—International Vaccine Centre (VIDO-InterVac), University of Saskatchewan, 120 Veterinary Road, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E3, Canada
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Department of Pediatrics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
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Department of Biostatistics, University of North Carolina Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Vaccines 2020, 8(3), 353; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8030353
Received: 29 May 2020 / Revised: 26 June 2020 / Accepted: 30 June 2020 / Published: 2 July 2020
Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infections are the most frequent bacterial sexually transmitted disease, and they can lead to ectopic pregnancy and infertility. Despite these detrimental long-term sequelae, a vaccine is not available. Success in preclinical animal studies is essential for vaccines to move to human clinical trials. Pigs are the natural host to Chlamydia suis (Cs)—a chlamydia species closely related to Ct, and are susceptible to Ct, making them a valuable animal model for Ct vaccine development. Before making it onto market, Ct vaccine candidates must show efficacy in a high-risk human population. The high prevalence of human Ct infection combined with the fact that natural infection does not result in sterilizing immunity, results in people at risk likely having been pre-exposed, and thus having some level of underlying non-protective immunity. Like human Ct, Cs is highly prevalent in outbred pigs. Therefore, the goal of this study was to model a trial in pre-exposed humans, and to determine the immunogenicity and efficacy of intranasal Cs vaccination in pre-exposed outbred pigs. The vaccine candidates consisted of UV-inactivated Cs particles in the presence or absence of an adjuvant (TriAdj). In this study, both groups of vaccinated pigs had a lower Cs burden compared to the non-vaccinated group; especially the TriAdj group induced the differentiation of CD4+ cells into tissue-trafficking CCR7- IFN-γ-producing effector memory T cells. These results indicate that Cs vaccination of pre-exposed pigs effectively boosts a non-protective immune response induced by natural infection; moreover, they suggest that a similar approach could be applied to human vaccine trials. View Full-Text
Keywords: chlamydia trachomatis; chlamydia suis; large animal model; swine; translational research; vaccine development; TriAdj; vaccination; immunology; T cells; effector memory chlamydia trachomatis; chlamydia suis; large animal model; swine; translational research; vaccine development; TriAdj; vaccination; immunology; T cells; effector memory
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MDPI and ACS Style

Amaral, A.F.; Rahman, K.S.; Kick, A.R.; Cortes, L.M.; Robertson, J.; Kaltenboeck, B.; Gerdts, V.; O’Connell, C.M.; Poston, T.B.; Zheng, X.; Liu, C.; Omesi, S.Y.; Darville, T.; Käser, T. Mucosal Vaccination with UV-Inactivated Chlamydia suis in Pre-Exposed Outbred Pigs Decreases Pathogen Load and Induces CD4 T-Cell Maturation into IFN-γ+ Effector Memory Cells. Vaccines 2020, 8, 353. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8030353

AMA Style

Amaral AF, Rahman KS, Kick AR, Cortes LM, Robertson J, Kaltenboeck B, Gerdts V, O’Connell CM, Poston TB, Zheng X, Liu C, Omesi SY, Darville T, Käser T. Mucosal Vaccination with UV-Inactivated Chlamydia suis in Pre-Exposed Outbred Pigs Decreases Pathogen Load and Induces CD4 T-Cell Maturation into IFN-γ+ Effector Memory Cells. Vaccines. 2020; 8(3):353. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8030353

Chicago/Turabian Style

Amaral, Amanda F., Khondaker S. Rahman, Andrew R. Kick, Lizette M. Cortes, James Robertson, Bernhard Kaltenboeck, Volker Gerdts, Catherine M. O’Connell, Taylor B. Poston, Xiaojing Zheng, Chuwen Liu, Sam Y. Omesi, Toni Darville, and Tobias Käser. 2020. "Mucosal Vaccination with UV-Inactivated Chlamydia suis in Pre-Exposed Outbred Pigs Decreases Pathogen Load and Induces CD4 T-Cell Maturation into IFN-γ+ Effector Memory Cells" Vaccines 8, no. 3: 353. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8030353

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