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Article

Infection with Toxocara canis Inhibits the Production of IgE Antibodies to α-Gal in Humans: Towards a Conceptual Framework of the Hygiene Hypothesis?

1
Institute of Parasitology, Department of Pathobiology, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, 1210 Vienna, Austria
2
UMR BIPAR, INRAE, ANSES, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d’Alfort, Université Paris-Est, 94706 Maisons-Alfort, France
3
CNRS, Inserm, CHU Lille, Institut Pasteur de Lille, U1019–UMR 8204–CIIL–Center for Infection and Immunity of Lille, University of Lille, F-59000 Lille, France
4
CHU Lille, Laboratory of Parasitology and Mycology, F-59000 Lille, France
5
Molecular Biotechnology Section, FH Campus Wien, University of Applied Sciences, 1030 Vienna, Austria
6
SaBio, Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos (IREC-CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13005 Ciudad Real, Spain
7
EA 7380 Dynamyc, UPEC, USC, ANSES, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d’Alfort, Université Paris-Est, 94706 Maisons-Alfort, France
8
CNRS, Inserm, CHU Lille, Institut Pasteur de Lille, U1019–UMR9017–CIIL–Center for Infection and Immunity of Lille, University of Lille, F-59000 Lille, France
9
FAZ-Floridsdorf Allergy Center, 1210 Vienna, Austria
10
Department of Medical Parasitology, Institute of Specific Prophylaxis and Tropical Medicine, Center of Pathophysiology, Infectiology and Immunology, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria
11
AGES-Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety, 1220 Vienna, Austria
12
Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Vaccines 2020, 8(2), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020167
Received: 17 February 2020 / Revised: 16 March 2020 / Accepted: 29 March 2020 / Published: 6 April 2020
α-Gal syndrome (AGS) is a type of anaphylactic reaction to mammalian meat characterized by an immunoglobulin (Ig)E immune response to the oligosaccharide α-Gal (Galα1-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc-R). Tick bites seems to be a prerequisite for the onset of the allergic disease in humans, but the implication of non-tick parasites in α-Gal sensitization has also been deliberated. In the present study, we therefore evaluated the capacity of helminths (Toxocara canis, Ascaris suum, Schistosoma mansoni), protozoa (Toxoplasma gondii), and parasitic fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus) to induce an immune response to α-Gal. For this, different developmental stages of the infectious agents were tested for the presence of α-Gal. Next, the potential correlation between immune responses to α-Gal and the parasite infections was investigated by testing sera collected from patients with AGS and those infected with the parasites. Our results showed that S. mansoni and A. fumigatus produce the terminal α-Gal moieties, but they were not able to induce the production of specific antibodies. By contrast, T. canis, A. suum and T. gondii lack the α-Gal epitope. Furthermore, the patients with T. canis infection had significantly decreased anti-α-Gal IgE levels when compared to the healthy controls, suggesting the potential role of this nematode parasite in suppressing the allergic response to the glycan molecule. This rather intriguing observation is discussed in the context of the ‘hygiene hypothesis’. Taken together, our study provides new insights into the relationships between immune responses to α-Gal and parasitic infections. However, further investigations should be undertaken to identify T. canis components with potent immunomodulatory properties and to assess their potential to be used in immunotherapy and control of AGS. View Full-Text
Keywords: α-Gal; allergy; hygiene hypothesis; immune response; suppression; Toxocara canis α-Gal; allergy; hygiene hypothesis; immune response; suppression; Toxocara canis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hodžić, A.; Mateos-Hernández, L.; Fréalle, E.; Román-Carrasco, P.; Alberdi, P.; Pichavant, M.; Risco-Castillo, V.; Le Roux, D.; Vicogne, J.; Hemmer, W.; Auer, H.; Swoboda, I.; Duscher, G.G.; de la Fuente, J.; Cabezas-Cruz, A. Infection with Toxocara canis Inhibits the Production of IgE Antibodies to α-Gal in Humans: Towards a Conceptual Framework of the Hygiene Hypothesis? Vaccines 2020, 8, 167. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020167

AMA Style

Hodžić A, Mateos-Hernández L, Fréalle E, Román-Carrasco P, Alberdi P, Pichavant M, Risco-Castillo V, Le Roux D, Vicogne J, Hemmer W, Auer H, Swoboda I, Duscher GG, de la Fuente J, Cabezas-Cruz A. Infection with Toxocara canis Inhibits the Production of IgE Antibodies to α-Gal in Humans: Towards a Conceptual Framework of the Hygiene Hypothesis? Vaccines. 2020; 8(2):167. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020167

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hodžić, Adnan; Mateos-Hernández, Lourdes; Fréalle, Emilie; Román-Carrasco, Patricia; Alberdi, Pilar; Pichavant, Muriel; Risco-Castillo, Veronica; Le Roux, Delphine; Vicogne, Jérôme; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Auer, Herbert; Swoboda, Ines; Duscher, Georg G.; de la Fuente, José; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro. 2020. "Infection with Toxocara canis Inhibits the Production of IgE Antibodies to α-Gal in Humans: Towards a Conceptual Framework of the Hygiene Hypothesis?" Vaccines 8, no. 2: 167. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020167

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