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Vaccines 2015, 3(1), 105-136;

M2e-Based Universal Influenza A Vaccines

Inflammation Research Center, VIB, Technologiepark 927, B-9052 Ghent, Belgium
Department for Biomedical Molecular Biology, Ghent University, Technologiepark 927, B-9052 Ghent, Belgium
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sarah Gilbert
Received: 8 December 2014 / Revised: 23 December 2014 / Accepted: 30 January 2015 / Published: 13 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Influenza Vaccines)
Full-Text   |   PDF [913 KB, uploaded 13 February 2015]   |  


The successful isolation of a human influenza virus in 1933 was soon followed by the first attempts to develop an influenza vaccine. Nowadays, vaccination is still the most effective method to prevent human influenza disease. However, licensed influenza vaccines offer protection against antigenically matching viruses, and the composition of these vaccines needs to be updated nearly every year. Vaccines that target conserved epitopes of influenza viruses would in principle not require such updating and would probably have a considerable positive impact on global human health in case of a pandemic outbreak. The extracellular domain of Matrix 2 (M2e) protein is an evolutionarily conserved region in influenza A viruses and a promising epitope for designing a universal influenza vaccine. Here we review the seminal and recent studies that focused on M2e as a vaccine antigen. We address the mechanism of action and the clinical development of M2e-vaccines. Finally, we try to foresee how M2e-based vaccines could be implemented clinically in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: matrix protein 2; influenza; vaccines matrix protein 2; influenza; vaccines

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Deng, L.; Cho, K.J.; Fiers, W.; Saelens, X. M2e-Based Universal Influenza A Vaccines. Vaccines 2015, 3, 105-136.

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