We have investigated the cardio-protective effects of pretreatment with curcumin nanoparticles (CUN) compared to conventional curcumin (CUS) on the changes in oxidative stress parameters and inflammatory cytokine levels during induced acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in rats with diabetes mellitus (DM). DM was induced with streptozotocin, and AMI with isoproterenol. Eight groups of seven Wister Bratislava rats were included in the study. The N-C was the normal control group, AMI-C was the group with AMI, DM-C was the group with DM, and DM-AMI-C was the group with DM and AMI. All four groups received saline solution orally during the whole experiment. S-DM-CUS-AMI and S-DM-CUN-AMI groups received saline for seven days prior to DM induction and continued with CUS (200 mg/kg bw, bw = body weight) for S-DM-CUS-AMI and CUN for S-DM-CUN-AMI (200 mg/kg bw) for 15 days before AMI induction. The CUS-DM-CUS-AMI group received CUS (200 mg/kg bw), while the CUN-DM-CUN-AMI received CUN (200 mg/kg bw) for seven days prior to DM induction, and both groups continued with administration in the same doses for 15 days before AMI induction. CUS and CUN prevented elevation of creatine kinase, creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase in all groups, with better results in the CUN (S-DM-CUN-AMI and CUN-DM-CUN-AMI groups). CUS and CUN significantly reduced serum levels of oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, the indirect assessment of nitric oxide synthesis, and total oxidative status) and enhanced antioxidative markers (total antioxidative capacity and thiols, up to 2.5 times). All groups that received CUS or CUN showed significantly lower serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β. The best antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects were obtained for the group that received CUN before DM induction (CUN-DM-CUN-AMI group). Pretreatment with CUN proved higher cardio-protective effects exerting an important antioxidative and anti-inflammatory impact in the case of AMI in DM.
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